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Background: Any criteria (clinical, pathologic, microbiological or histo-pathologic) attributing a case of Paediatric gastrointestinal perforation to Typhoid would be of help in reaching a proper diagnosis to guide appropriate management.
Aims and Objectives: To review all cases of Typhoid perforation for their clinical, pathologic and intra-operative findings.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on all cases of typhoid perforation (gastrointestinal perforation with positive Widal test) operated at a tertiary care centre from September 2015 to September 2018. Data regarding their clinical findings, investigation results, intraoperative findings, nature of the surgical intervention, postoperative results and histopathological findings were collected from their records and analysed.
Results: A total of 13 patients were operated during this period with positive Widal’s test at presentation. 6/13 had single ileal perforation; two patients had multiple ileal perforations; perforation at atypical sites were found in four patients (one each at gastric, duodenal, caecal and rectal); one patient presented with Meckel’s band obstruction with multiple ulcers – this patient was sick and died despite a diverting ileostomy in the postoperative period. While 8/13 patients had primary closure of the perforation site, diversion through ileostomy was performed in five patients. All patients did well in the post-operative period except one patient of multiple ulcers and obstructing Meckel’s band who died in the post-operative period.
Conclusion: On encountering a gastrointestinal perforation, no definite symptomatology or its pattern, no clinical examination findings, no intraoperative characteristics of the perforation and no biopsy can definitively point towards Typhoid as the cause. Therefore, we still have to depend on serological tests in correlation with clinical features to reach a conclusive diagnosis. Cultures and PCR, although sensitive are either time-taking or expensive to guide management. Typhoid perforation can have vivid and atypical presentation depending on the number and site of perforation.
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