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Blood lipids are essential for life; at the same time, elevated or reduced levels of some of the components of lipid are related to risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This article provides a review on dietary and blood lipids with their impact on cardiovascular health. The role of apolipoprotein B (ApoB), Lipoprotein(a) ((Lp(a)) and other lipoprotein particles in the development of ASCVD has been reviewed. There are new evidences that ApoB the structural protein of most of the lipoprotein particles (carrier of blood lipids), in addition to low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis with increased risk for ASCVD. Elevated levels of Lp(a) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of ASCVD, but it appears to be a weaker risk factor than ApoB or LDL-C.
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