The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review

Main Article Content

Sheikh Salahuddin Ahmed

Abstract

Many details of the emergence of 2019 novel coronavirus infection such as its origin, spread, epidemiology, full spectrum of clinical illness, treatment and mortality rate has not been clearly defined. This review focuses the epidemiological evidences, clinical manifestations, investigations and treatment provided to the admitted cases of the 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in various hospitals of Wuhan city and other regions in China. Information have been gathered mainly from relevant researches and papers that were published recently. Clinical manifestations included fever, non-productive cough, dyspnoea, myalgia, fatigue, radiographic manifestations of pneumonia and detection of the novel virus by RT-PCR method. Some patients rapidly developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute respiratory failure, and other serious complications with fatal outcomes. There are neither vaccines nor effective treatments for the disease caused by the virus, but efforts are typically confined to symptomatic and supportive management. Antivirals and corticosteroids were used in severe illness but had no effective outcome.

Keywords:
2019-nCoV, pneumonia, novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ahmed, S. S. (2020). The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 32(4), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i430393
Section
Review Article

References

World Health Organization. Novel coronavirus – China; 12 Jan, 2020. Available:http://www.who.int/csr/don/12-january-2020-novel-coronavirus-china/en/ (Accessed on 28 Jan 2020)

Report of clustering pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City. Wuhan Municipal Health Commission; 2019. Available:http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/front/web/showDetail/2019123108989

World Health Organization. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV); 30 Jan, 2020. Available:https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020
(Accessed on 02 Feb 2020)

Gorbalenya, Alexander E. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. Posted on 11 February 2020. bioRxiv: 2020.02.07.937862.
(Accessed on 13 Feb 2020)

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report –51. Data as reported by national authorities by 10 AM CET 11 March 2020. Available:https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200311-sitrep-51-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=1ba62e57 10
(Accessed on 13 Mar 2020)

Weiss SR, Leibowitz JL. Coronavirus pathogenesis. Adv Virus Res. 2011;81: 85-164.

Su S, Wong G, Shi W, Liu J, Lai ACK, Zhou J, et al. Epidemiology, genetic recombination, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Trends Microbiol. 2016; 24(6):490-502.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet. 2020; 395(10223):507-513.

Published online on 29 Jan 2020.

Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019;17:181-192.

Zhong NS, Zheng BJ, Li YM, Poon, Xie ZH, Chan KH, et al. Epidemiology and cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong, People’s Republic of China, in February, 2003. Lancet. 2003;362(9393):1353-1358.

Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, Zaki SR, Peret T, Emery S, et al. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348:1953-1966.

World Health Organization. Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003; 31 Dec, 2003.
Available:https://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/table2004_04_21/en/
(Accessed on 16 Jan 2020)

World Health Organization. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS Monthly Summary; Nov, 2019.
Available:http://www.who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en/
(Accessed on 25 Jan 2020)

Drosten C, Günther S, Preiser W, van der Werf S, Brodt HR, Becker S, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1967-1976.

Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1814-1820.

Azhar EI, El-Kafrawy SA, Farraj SA, Hassan AM, Al-Saeed MS, Hashem AM, et al. Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2499-2505.

Haagmans BL, Al Dhahiry SH, Reusken CB, Raj VS, Galiano M, Myers R, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: An outbreak investigation. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:140-145.

Sabir JSM, Lam TT-Y, Ahmed MMM, Li L, Shen Y, Abo-Aba SEM, et al. Co-circulation of three camel coronavirus species and recombination of MERS-CoVs in Saudi Arabia. Science. 2016;351: 81-84.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):727-733. Published online on 24 Jan 2020.

Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin. Posted 23 Jan 2020. bioRxiv 2020.01.22.914952.
DOI: 10.1101/2020.01.22.914952
(Accessed on 30 Jan 2020)

Del Rio C, Malani PN. 2019 Novel Coronavirus—Important Information for Clinicians. JAMA.

Published online on 05 Feb, 2020.
DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.1490

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical feature of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223): 497-506.

Published online on 24 Jan 2020.

Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KKW, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: A study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;395(10233)514-523.

Published online on 24 Jan 2020.

Centers for disease control and prevention. 2019 Novel coronavirus, Wuhan, China: 2019-nCoV situation summary; 28 Jan, 2020. Available:https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/summary.html
(Accessed on 30 Jan 2020)

Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) CDC; 30 January, 2020.
Available:www.cdc.gov
(Accessed on 12 Feb 2020)

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. Published online on 29 Jan, 2020.

Wei-Jie G, Zheng-Yi N, Yu Hu, Wen-Hua L, Chun-Quan O, Jian-Xing H, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. NEJM.

Published online on 28 Feb, 2020.
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032

Paules CI, Marston HD, Fauci AS. Coronavirus infections—more than just the common cold. JAMA.

Published online on 23 Jan 2020.
DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.0757

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Frequently asked questions about SARS; 2005.
Available:https://www.cdc.gov/sars/about/faq.html
(Accessed on 15 Feb 2020)

Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of Autoimmunity.

Published online on 26 Feb, 2020.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA.

Published online on 07 Feb, 2020.
DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.1585

Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. Washington State 2019-nCoV Case Investigation Team. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med.

Published online on 31 Jan, 2020.
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191

World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected: interim guidance; 28 Jan, 2020.
Available:https://www.who.int/publications-detail/clinical-management-of-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected (Accessed on 5 Feb 2020)

Liu K, Yuan-Yuan F, Yan D, Wei L, Mei-Fang W, Jing-Ping M, et al. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province. Chin Med J (Engl).

Published online on 07 Feb, 2020.
DOI: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000744

Lisette V. WHO Declares Coronavirus A Global Health Emergency, Praises China's 'Extraordinary Measures’. Forbes; 30 Jan, 2020. Available:https://www.forbes.com/sites/lisettevoytko/2020/01/30/coronavirus-1st-us-human-to-human-transmission-confirmed-right-before-who-emergency-meeting/#74479b63fcac
(Assessed on: 02 Feb 2020)

Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, et al. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;91: 264–266.

Jane P. China coronavirus: cases surge as official admits human to human transmission. BMJ. 2020:368:m236. Published online on 20 Jan 2020.

Jon C, Dennis N. New SARS-like virus in China triggers alarm. Science. 2020; 367(6475):234–235.

De Wit E, van Doremalen N, Falzarano D, Munster VJ. SARS and MERS: Recent insights into emerging coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016;14:523-534.

Stockman LJ, Bellamy R, Garner P. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e343.

Lansbury L, Rodrigo C, Leonardi-Bee J, Nguyen-Van-Tam J, Lim WS. Corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of influenza. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;2:CD010406.

Arabi YM, Mandourah Y, Al-Hameed F, Sindi AA, Almekhlafi GA, Hussein MA, et al. Corticosteroid therapy for critically ill patients with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;197:757-767.

Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Biosci Trends.

Published online on 28 Jan 2020.
DOI: 10.5582/bst.2020.01020

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 4 Feb, 2020.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0
(Accessed on 18 Feb 2020)

Zhijian X, Cheng P, Yulong S, Zhengdan Z, Kaijie M, Xiaoyu Wang, et al. Nelfinavir was predicted to be a potential inhibitor of 2019 nCov main protease by an integrative approach combining homology modelling, molecular docking and binding free energy calculation. Posted on: 28 Jan, 2020. bioRxiv 2020.01.27.921627.
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.27.921627
(Accessed on 01 Feb 2020)

World Health Organization, 2020. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public.
Available:https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/when-and-how-to-use-masks