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Background: Some studies have noted an association between family history of diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in childhood.
Aim: To determine the prevalence rate of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents with familial history of early onset (T2DM) and BMI < 95th percentile for age.
Study Design: A cross-sectional analysis.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Basic Medical Sciences University of the West Indies, Jamaica, 2012.
Methodology: Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were evaluated for 25 adolescents 11-18 years of BMI < 95th for age and family history of early onset T2DM. Thirty two (32) adolescents of similar age and BMI without familial history of diabetes served as controls. Measurements included: Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, BMI, waist circumference and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The prevalence rate of MS was determined in the childhood/adolescence criteria as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III) modified standard.
Results: Sixteen percent (16%), 16% and 20% of adolescents with familial history of early onset T2DM had glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity respectively. Twenty percent of these adolescents were insulin resistant and 8% were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 3.1%, 9.4% and 6.3% of adolescents without familial history of diabetes had dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance respectively. No adolescent presented with hypertension. The prevalence rate of MS in adolescents with familial history of early onset T2DM and BMI < 95th percentile for age was 19.1%. MS was not present in adolescents without familial history of diabetes.
Conclusion: Adolescents of BMI < 95th percentile and family history of early onset T2DM are more likely to develop MS than adolescents of similar BMI without family history of diabetes.