Qualitative Analysis of Bacterial Aerosols Generated during Ultrasonic Dental Scaling
Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research,
Aims: To compare the efficacy of two mouth rinses (0.2% Chlorhexidine and 5% green tea mouth rinse) in reducing the bacterial load (CFUs) in aerosol samples collected during ultrasonic dental scaling and to do the qualitative analysis of bacterial isolates.
Study Design: Quasi experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Periodontics (Ziauddin college of Dentistry), Ziauddin University, Karachi, between January 2019 to August 2019.
Methodology: This study comprised of seventy patients (43 males and 27 females) within the age group of 20 to 65 years having gingival and plaque score between 1 and 3 and mean probing depth less than 5 mm. All study subjects were divided into 2 equal groups (group 1 and group 2). A split mouth design was used for ultrasonic scaling (oral prophylaxis). Control side was scaled without pre rinsing while the test side was scaled after pre procedural mouth rinsing. Group 1 study subjects were instructed to rinse with 10 ml 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouth rinse for one minute and Group 2 rinsed with 10 ml 5% green tea mouth rinse for a minute. Fresh blood agar plates were used for air sampling, which were then transported to Microbiology laboratory (JPMC) for aerobic culturing and microbiological examination.
Results: Greater percentage of Gram positive bacteria were found in aerosol samples generated during ultrasonic scaling. Gram positive cocci (Staph epidermidis and Micrococci species) were in abundance and very few gram negative bacteria were detected.
Conclusion: Dental health care providers and patients can easily acquire infections because of contaminated aerosols and splatters and so all infection control measures should be taken to minimize these risks. Pre procedural mouth rinsing with effective mouthwashes should be done before dental procedures as it is easiest and much economical way of reducing cross infection.
- cross infection
- infection control
- gram positive bacteria
- ultrasonic scaler
- aerobic culturing.
How to Cite
Bennadi D, Reddy V, Thummala NR. Preventive and curative measures adopted by dentists to combat occupational hazards-a cross sectional study. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015;7(10):416-8.
Shaghaghian S, Golkari A, Pardis S, Rezayi A. Occupational exposure of shiraz dental students to patients’ blood and body fluid. Journal of Dentistry. 2015;16(3):206.
Al Maghlouth A, Al Yousef Y, Al Bagieh N. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacterial aerosols. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2004;5(4):91-100.
Laheij A, Kistler J, Belibasakis G, Välimaa H, De Soet J, Workshop EOM. Healthcare-associated viral and bacterial infections in dentistry. Journal of Oral Microbiology. 2012;4(1):17659.
Dahiya P, Kamal R, Sharma V, Kaur S. “Hepatitis” – Prevention and management in dental practice. Journal of Education and Health Promotion. 2015;4.
Yadav S, Kumar S, Srivastava P, Gupta KK, Gupta J, Khan YS. Comparison of efficacy of three different mouthwashes in reducing aerosol contamination produced by ultrasonic scaler: A pilot study. Indian Journal of Dental Sciences. 2018;10 (1):6.
Verma N, Baidya D, Makhijani B, Shetty N, Mathur A, Manohar B. Evaluation of aerosol contamination during ultrasonic procedures. Journal of Nepalese Society of Periodontology and Oral Implantology. 2017;1(1):17-22.
Afzha R, Chatterjee A, Subbaiah SK, Pradeep AR. Microbial contamination of contact lenses after scaling and root planing using ultrasonic scalers with and without protective eyewear: A clinical and microbiological study. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology. 2016;20(3): 273.
Zemouri C, De Soet H, Crielaard W, Laheij A. A scoping review on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental environment. PloS One. 2017;12(5):e0178007.
Bhuvaneswari P. Aerosols - A concern for dentists. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2014;7(8):9.
Acharya S, Priya H, Purohit B, Bhat M. Aerosol contamination in a rural university dental clinic in south India. International Journal of Infection Control. 2009;6(1).
Harrel SK, Molinari J. Aerosols and splatter in dentistry: A brief review of the literature and infection control implications. The Journal of the American Dental Association. 2004;135(4):429-37.
Singh A, Manjunath RS, Singla D, Bhattacharya HS, Sarkar A, Chandra N. Aerosol, a health hazard during ultrasonic scaling: A clinico-microbiological study. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2016; 27(2):160.
Shetty SK, Sharath K, Shenoy S, Sreekumar C, Shetty RN, Biju T. Compare the efficacy of two commercially available mouthrinses in reducing viable bacterial count in dental aerosol produced during ultrasonic scaling when used as a preprocedural rinse. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2013;14(5):848-51.
Swaminathan Y, Toby Thomas J, Muralidharan N. The efficacy of preprocedural mouth rinse of 0.2% chlorhexidine and commercially available herbal mouth containing Salvadora persica in reducing the bacterial load in saliva and aerosol produced during scaling. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical & Clinical Research. 2014;7(1):71-4.
Retamal-Valdes B, Soares GM, Stewart B, Figueiredo LC, Faveri M, Miller S, et al. Effectiveness of a pre-procedural mouthwash in reducing bacteria in dental aerosols: Randomized clinical trial. Brazilian Oral Research. 2017;31.
Sawhney A, Venugopal S, Babu GR, Garg A, Mathew M, Yadav M, et al. Aerosols How dangerous they are in clinical practice. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2015;9(4):ZC52.
Ammu A, Varma S, Suragimath G, Zope S, Pisal A, Gangavati R. Evaluation and comparison of two commercially available mouthrinses in reducing aerolised bacteria during ultrasonic scaling when used as a preprocedural rinse. Cumhuriyet Dental Journal. 2019;22(2):235-40.
Aurangjeb AM, Zaman T, Badruddoza M. Practice of dental surgeons about dental splatter and aerosol. City Dental College Journal. 2013;10(2):10-6.
Kobza J, Pastuszka J, Brągoszewska E. Do exposures to aerosols pose a risk to dental professionals? Occupational Medicine. 2018;68(7):454-8.
Jawade R, Bhandari V, Ugale G, Taru S, Khaparde S, Kulkarni A, et al. Comparative evaluation of two different ultrasonic liquid coolants on dental aerosols. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR. 2016;10(7):ZC53.
Narayana T, Mohanty L, Sreenath G, Vidhyadhari P. Role of preprocedural rinse and high volume evacuator in reducing bacterial contamination in bioaerosols. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP. 2016;20(1):59.
Balejo RDP, Cortelli JR, Costa FO, Cyrino RM, Aquino DR, Cogo-Müller K, et al. Effects of chlorhexidine preprocedural rinse on bacteremia in periodontal patients: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2017;25(6):586- 95.
Gopalakrishnan D, Juluri R, Srihari J, Viswanathan V. Comparing the efficacy of two mouth rinses in reducing bacterial aerosol contamination. 2017;4:2.
Chandrasekaran K 2017;7:209-18.
Dandekar S, Deshpande N, Dave D. Comparative evaluation of anti-microbial efficacy of cranberry extract and chlorhexidine mouthwash on periodontal pathogens: An In-vitro study. Journal of Periodontal Practice. 2017;2(1).
Dabholkar CS, Shah M, Kathariya R, Bajaj M, Doshi Y. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of pomegranate-containing mouthwash against oral- biofilm forming organisms: An In vitro microbial study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR. 2016;10 (3):ZC65.
Devker N, Mohitey J, Vibhute A, Chouhan VS, Chavan P, Malagi S, et al. A study to evaluate and compare the efficacy of preprocedural mouthrinsing and high volume evacuator attachment alone and in combination in reducing the amount of viable aerosols produced during ultrasonic scaling procedure. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13(5):681-9.
Suresh SR, Manimegalai M, Sudhakar U. Comparison of efficacy of preprocedural rinsing with chlorhexidine and essential oil mouthwash in reducing viable bacteria in dental aerosols - A microbiological study. International Journal of Contemporary Dentistry. 2011;2(6).
Mirhoseini SH, Nikaeen M, Khanahmad H, Hatamzadeh M, Hassanzadeh A. Monitoring of airborne bacteria and aerosols in different wards of hospitals-Particle counting usefulness in investigation of airborne bacteria. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 2015;22(4).
Szymańska J, Sitkowska J. Bacterial hazards in a dental office: An update review. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2012;6(8):1642-50.
Sethi G, Kumar K. A comparative evaluation of efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine with a herbal mouthwash as pre-procedural mouthrinse in the reduction of Aerosol contamination produced by ultrasonic scaler. Acta Scientific Dental Sciences. 2018;2:02-6.
Rautemaa R, Nordberg A, Wuolijoki-Saaristo K, Meurman J. Bacterial aerosols in dental practice – A potential hospital infection problem? Journal of hospital infection. 2006;64 (1):76-81.
Ramesh A, Thomas JT, Muralidharan N, Varghese SS. Efficacy of adjunctive usage of hydrogen peroxide with chlorhexidine as preprocedural mouthrinse on dental aerosol. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2015;5(5): 431-5.
Umar D, Basheer B, Husain A, Baroudi K, Ahamed F, Kumar A. Evaluation of bacterial contamination in a clinical environment. Journal of International Oral Health: JIOH. 2015;7(1):53.
Abstract View: 1631 times
PDF Download: 759 times