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Dyslipidemia is an important cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) worldwide that leads to increased risk of morbidity and mortality; treating dyslipidemia to goal reduces the risks. This article reviews the pharmacological therapy of dyslipidemia which is often required in addition to life style intervention to achieve target lipid levels. Currently, there are seven types of approved lipid modifying drugs which are effective in treating dyslipidemia when used singly or in combination. Statins are considered as first line drug and have been used extensively in the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. Ezetimibe is used as a first line add-on drug for patients already on a statin who have not reached their low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) goals; however, ezetimibe can be used as initial drug in statin intolerant patients. Bile acid sequestrants are a useful alternative to statins or ezetimibe in pregnant women or patients with liver disease. They also lower blood glucose and are useful in diabetes mellitus (DM). The PCSK9 inhibitors are powerful lipid modifying drugs, are expensive, need injection for delivery, and are used when statin in maximum doses with other drugs cannot lower the LDL-C level to targets in patients with very high CV risk. Fibrates have recently shown to slow the progression of microvascular diseases and are found beneficial for DM with hypertriglyceridemia and microvascular complications. Currently, niacin use is markedly decreased due to development of more effective alternative drugs for managing dyslipidemia and because of the adverse effects related to niacin use. Recent trials reveal that, ω-3 fatty acids, when added in pharmacological doses to statin therapy (after controlling LDL-C), are effective in reducing CV events in patients having moderate hypertriglyceridemia with high or very high CV risks.
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