Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research https://www.journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-8899)</strong> aims to publish research papers, reviews and short communications in the areas of medicine and medical research.&nbsp; JAMMR will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. JAMMR is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2456-8899 Anesthesia for Urgent Surgery in a Patient with Angioneurotic Oedema: A Case Report https://www.journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30664 <p>Hereditary angioneurotic oedema is an autosomal dominant disease associated with serum deficiency of functional C1-inhibitor. It is characterized by periodic swelling of subcutaneous tissues, abdominal viscera and upper airways. Lethal acute episodes of oedema can occur during anaesthesia and surgery. It is essential to prepare such patients before surgery. This article describes a case and the various preventive measures used to avoid acute episodes during anaesthesia for urgent surgery for mesenteric ischemia. In emergency situations where C1 inhibitor concentrate is not available, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) can be used as an alternative, as it also contains C1 inhibitor, corticosteroids, antihistamines, and epinephrine can be useful adjuncts but typically are not efficacious in aborting acute attacks. Prophylactic management involves long-term use of attenuated androgens or antifibrinolytic agents (Tranexamic acid).Their various indications are discussed.</p> Said Khallikane Aziz Benakrout Hanane Delsa Mohamed Moutaoukil Khalil Abou Elalaa Samir Siah Hicham Balkhi Abdelouahed Baite ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 20 26 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1930664 Physical Exercise as a Modulator of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Atherosclerotic Plaque https://www.journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30666 <p>Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. One of the main risks to the development of cardiovascular diseases is inflammatory diseases, which are related to oxidative stress, among them, atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis consists of a process of chronic inflammation, in which the accumulation of lipids occurs in the subendothelial space of the tunica intima of large caliber vessels. This is due to the accumulation of fibrous elements and inflammatory cells. Thus, regular physical exercise contributes to improving the body's immune defenses, while modulating inflammatory processes. In addition, physical activity is responsible for increasing the production of antioxidant enzymes, increasing the synthesis of nitric oxide, decreasing oxidative stress and decreasing systemic inflammation. Thus, physical exercise directly changes the genesis of atherosclerosis.</p> Matheus Ribeiro Bizuti Débora Meneghel Eduardo de Camargo Schwede Laura Nyland Jost Débora Tavares de Resende e Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-21 2020-10-21 36 44 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1930666 Gastrointestinal Bleeding Diagnosed by Capsule Endoscopy – A Change towards More Patients with Bleeding-related Drugs https://www.journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30662 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the standard procedure for a work-up of a suspected bleeding source after negative gastroscopy and colonoscopy. Popularity of this procedure increased in the last decade. In this work we aimed to identify the changes in patient characteristics and how those changes influence bleeding related findings. In particular the assumed higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding of the new oral anticoagulants (nOAC) compared to phenprocoumon was of interest.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Consecutive VCE examinations performed at our center from January 2004 to March 2018 were identified retrospectively. Baseline characteristics of the patients, VCE results and treatment that was initiated were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>560 VCE were included in the analysis. The rate of VCE per month increased from 2.3/month in the period of January 2004 – December 2012 up to 5.0/month in January 2013 – March 2018. Accompanied by this increase the examined patients suffered from significantly more comorbidities (72 vs. 82%, p 0.001) and used a higher number of bleeding-related drugs (47 vs. 66%, p &lt;0.001), especially nOACs. Age above 65 and bleeding-related drugs were significantly associated with angiodysplasias found on VCE examinations. NOACs and phenprocoumon showed no difference in their correlation to angiodysplasias.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This single center retrospective analysis revealed a steep increase in VCE examinations over the last years with an increase in the prevalence of comorbidities and the use of bleeding-related drugs. Interestingly, use of both nOACs and phenprocoumon did not result in a significant higher rate of angiodysplasias in the VCE.</p> Alexander Hann Louisa Graf Thomas Seufferlein Eugen Zizer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 1 10 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1930662 Rapid Assessment of Indirect Effect of Handwashing Campaign during COVID 19 Risk Communication and Community Engagement on Diarrhoea and Respiratory Illness among Children under Five in Jijiga Town of Somali Region of Ethiopia https://www.journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30663 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Diarrhoea and pneumonia are serious global public health problems affecting child survival especially in the developing countries. The study aimed to assess the indirect effect of hand washing campaign during COVID risk communication and community engagement on diarrhoea and respiratory infection among children under five.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This was both cross sectional survey and retrospective chart review.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Jijiga Town of Somali Region, Ethiopia between November 2019 and 30<sup>th</sup> June 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Handwashing practices among the households and the reported number of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection in the District Health Information System (DHIS) database 4 months before and 4 months during COVID 19 risk communication handwashing campaign was assessed and paired t test used to determine the effect of the campaign on diarrhoea and respiratory illness at a significant level of 5%.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 255(44%) of the 580 households had basic hand washing facilities, however 171 (67.1%) of the 255 households with hand washing facilities demonstrated appropriate hand washing techniques. The percentage mean reduction in the number of children under five treated for acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea before and during the campaign was 6.49% and 11.5% though not statistically significant with p value = 0.778 and 0.3952 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study reaffirmed the effect of proper hand washing practices on the reduction of episodes of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection among children which ultimately will contribute to reducing child mortality and shows that COVID interventions and investment could be used to support and strengthen non COVID routine health services.</p> Olusola Oladeji Abdifatah Elmi Farah Asli Hassan Mohamed Ayanle Yusuf Mohammed Ali Yusuf Mohammed Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-17 2020-10-17 11 19 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1930663 The Locus of Fat Over-Accumulation as Predictor of Cardiometabolic Risks among Non Obese Normotensive Adults https://www.journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30665 <p>Studies on Metabolic Syndrome (MS) have recently been narrowed down to fat over-accumulation but there is no consistency in the obesity requirements for any of the health risk scores and definitions, thus, the utility of anthropometric measures in cardiometabolic risks prediction among non-obese requires additional research. This cross sectional study assessed the relationships and predictabilities of visceral adiposity index (VAI) and Lipid accumulation product (LAP) for cardiometabolic risks among 174 non obese adults (91 males and 83 females) 35 - 70 years of age that was randomly selected for this study after their consent. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, hip and waist circumferences. BMI, Waist-height ratio and waist-hip ratio were calculated. Serum Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein measured in a 12 hour fasting condition (mmol/L) using standard laboratory techniques were recorded. The VAI and LAP scores were calculated using the gender-specific equations. Systolic blood pressure and Diastolic blood pressure were measured and MABP was calculated as: DBP + 1/3 Pulse Pressure (mm/Hg). The results showed significant correlations among LAP, VAI, WHTR, WHPR and BMI (p≤0.01). Multivariate correlations and regression analysis of measures of adiposity and MS features also showed that LAP had a greater impact on features of MS and superior to other adiposity measures in male and female (R<sup>2</sup>: 0.956; p≤0.01). In conclusion, this study shows that LAP is superior in predicting risks of lipid and visceral adipose over-accumulations than other measures of adiposity among non-obese adults. The use of LAP as an assessment tool for Risks of fat over-accumulations and its intervention among non-obese adults was suggested.</p> Kolade Oladele Sharaye Emmanuel Idia Eboh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 27 35 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1930665 Awareness and Attitude of the Population of Karachi towards Stigma Associated with Cancer https://www.journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/30668 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cancer related stigma arises due to an amalgamation of certain myths, lack of understanding and religious and social beliefs that vary across different cultures. Despite the widespread availability of information regarding the characteristics of this disease and the ever-growing technological advances, cancer still remains a taboo with the cultural stereotype of its diagnosis being equivalent to a death warrant or penalty for unethical conduct.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This research aims to assess the prevalence of cancer stigma in the general population of Karachi and explores the different perceptions and misunderstandings of people regarding cancer patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>It was a cross sectional study conducted at Ziauddin University from July to August 2020. The calculated sample size at 50% proportion was 385 and convenient sampling technique was used to recruit the required sample. Data regarding demographics was collected by a self-administered questionnaire and cancer stigma scale was used to identify the awareness and attitudes.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>n= 174 (60.8%) responded as yes. n=126 (44.1%) participants mentioned that their close relatives have suffered from cancer. When asked about cancer awareness most of the study participants seemed to be aware of diseases. However n= 115 (40.2%) responded that cancer ruins the life of the sufferer. When the participants were asked about cancer stigma, they disagreed and showed that they do not have any fear from cancer patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The population of Karachi was not having any stigma related to cancer and their attitude towards cancer patients according to the questionnaire seemed to be very positive and humanitarian.</p> Burhanuddin Tahir Akhtar Ali Anshahrah Riaz Zuleikha Yousuf Sara Qadir Nehal Waseem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-21 2020-10-21 45 50 10.9734/jammr/2020/v32i1930668