Open Access Case Report

Case Reports of Neuroinvasive Manifestation of Viral Encephalitis

Hao Nguyen, Kaushal Shah, Dean Markham, Nada Fadul

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/18730

West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a mosquito-borne viral disease, which can cause an inflammation of the brain and meningitis. WNV is commonly found in Africa, West Asia, the Middle East and Europe. For the first time in North America, WNV was confirmed in the New York metropolitan area during the summer and fall of 1999. Since then, WNV over-wintered in the northeastern United States and has been described in humans, horses, birds, and mosquitoes. It is estimated that more than 80% of infected persons remain asymptomatic. Of those who develop symptoms, 80–90% develop an uncomplicated, self-limited febrile illness (‘West Nile fever’; WNF) while the remaining persons develop severe diseases including West Nile meningitis (WNM), West Nile encephalitis (WNE), or an acute poliomyelitis- like syndrome. In fact, less than 1% patients will develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically manifests as meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis [1].
We are presenting two cases admitted at our tertiary medical center-Vidant Medical Center in Eastern North Carolina with neuroinvasive WNV manifestation. Both patients presented with fever, altered mental status, and proceeded to develop respiratory failure. One patient died thirty days after admission and the other survived with residual isolated right lower extremity weakness that required prolonged rehabilitation.

Open Access Case Study

Biological Post: A Reconstructive Approach to Achieve Aesthetics

Jyoti Jain, Shipra Shukla, Kamleshwar Singh

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/18102

Traumatic injuries lead to fracture of anterior teeth, frequently occurs in dentistry and the prevalence rate of fractured anterior teeth, as a result of traumatic injuries, occurs 8.1 in 1000. The fracture of a tooth is itself a traumatic incident for young patients which leads to functional, aesthetic, psychological problems and reduces patient's quality of life. Various materials are available to restore these types of traumatic injuries, but till date there is no material that has been proved to be as effective as natural structure considering mechanical and biological properties. This case report represents the management of traumatized fractured mandibular anterior teeth with biological posts and coronal restorations with composite.

Open Access Case Study

Non-surgical Endodontic Management of Garre's Osteomyelitis: A Case Report

Athikesavan Jayasenthil, Potluri Venkatalakshmi Aparna, Sunderasan Balagopal

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/17772

Garre’s sclerosing osteomyelitis is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis that mainly affects children and young adults. This disease is commonly associated with an odontogenic infection resulting from dental caries. This article describes a case report of 14 year old boy with Garre’s osteomyelitis of mandible caused by infection of lower left first molar. The case was managed by non- surgical endodontic treatment and the healing was achieved.

Open Access Short Research Article

Should a Trial with Lost Allocation Key be Incorporated in Meta-analysis?

Bart G. Pijls, Boudewijn L. Borger-van der Burg, Larry E. Frisch, Anne J. Vochteloo, Rob G. H. H. Nelissen

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/17815

Aims: On occasion randomized controlled studies may remain unpublished because the allocation key identifying which group received active treatment and which received placebo (or alternative treatment) has been lost. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and under what circumstances an unpublished study like NCT00250237 whose allocation key has been irretrievably lost might be incorporated into a meta-analysis, allowing the information contained to contribute, however tentatively, to the evidence base around a clinical topic.
Study Design: Review / meta-analysis
Place and Duration of Study: Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute and School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia and Department of Surgery, Rijnland Hospital, between 2009 and 2014.
Methodology: For two published trials, we calculated separate effect measures for a simulated lost allocation key, under the alternative assumptions that Groups A or B received active treatment. These two effects were compared visually to the pooled effect from a meta-analysis of all other comparable studies. We present as well several quantitative methods for reconstituting a lost allocation code, involving frequentist meta-analysis, meta-regression, and Bayesian techniques. We apply these to an analysis of NCT00250237.
Results: The simulated lost allocation keys of both trials were successfully identified through visual methods using meta-analysis. Reconstitution in this manner requires that the trial’s effect depart significantly from the null and that there exist a sufficient number of other high quality studies addressing the same clinical topic to allow unbiased calculation of a pooled summary effect. While direct reconstitution may sometimes be possible, our primary approaches are implicitly Bayesian and, as with NCT00250327, allow probabilities to be estimated for each allocation assignment.
Conclusion: Under some circumstances studies with a lost allocation key may be incorporated cautiously into meta-analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Characteristics of Surgical Wound-Infections in Cancer Patients from Jalisciense Institute of Cancerology. México

Irma E. Velázquez-Brizuela, Janeth Aranda-Gama, Genaro Gabriel Ortiz, Fermín P. Pacheco-Moisés, Adalberto Gómez-Rodríguez, Fermín Morales-González, Erika D. González-Renovato, Emmanuel de la Mora-Jiménez

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/17550

Background: The surgical wound infections (SWI) are common in hospitals, depending on the type of surgery and the presence of risk factors, cancer patients have a higher prevalence of infection, (immune-compromised state in which it is located). A low rate of infection is one parameter to measure the quality of surgical services. The aim of the present work was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of SWI in cancer patients in the Jaliscience institute of cancerology.
Study Design: A descriptive, retrospective study.
Methodology: 46 patients were studied with SWI. Centers of disease control and prevention criteria for surgical wound infection were considered. Information was obtained from the Jaliscience Institute of Cancerology epidemiological department, using the hospital network for epidemiological surveillance (HNES) format record´s, included microbiological results and clinical data. The statistical analysis were performed with the SPSS-20 program.
Results: There were 2637 major surgeries from April 2008 thru December 2010. 46 had SWI. Frequency of service per 100 infected surgeries was: Gastroenterology 58.6%, Gynecology 32.6%, Urology 4.4, Head and Neck 2.2% and Traumatology 2.2%. Incidence by gender: men (1.1), women (0.83), with no significant difference. Average age of 51 years. The surgical-wound infected (SWI) were detected between 7.4±4.2 days. Average days stay 19 days. The results of microbiology cultures exhibited: Escherichia coli 53.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 11.9%, Morganella morganii 4.8%, Enterococcus faecium 11.9%, Enterococcus faecalis 23.8%, Staphylococcus-coagulase-negative 7.1%, Streptococcus ß-hemolytic 4.8%.
Conclusion: Surgical wound infection rates were similar to that reported in other countries and below the rates reported in oncology hospitals in México. It is important to note that a proper preventive approach and epidemiological surveillance are critical to avoid mortality of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ambulatory Adult Nigerians: Prevalence and Associated Family Biosocial Factors in a Primary Care Clinic in Eastern Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Study

Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh, A. N. Amadi, C. I. C Ebirim

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/18783

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multi-factoral medical condition that aggregates in the family and has implications for family health. Research analyses of determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated the interactions and clustering of family biosocial factors in its epidemiology.
Aim: To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and describe the associated family biosocial factors in ambulatory adult type 2 diabetic Nigerians in a primary care clinic in South-eastern Nigeria.
Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Seven hundred and fifty patients were screened for diabetes mellitus and thirty five of them who had diabetes mellitus were age and sex matched with thirty five non-diabetic, non-hypertensive patients for the determination of the association with family biosocial factors.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at a primary care clinic in Umuahia, South-eastern Nigeria in May 2011.
Methodology: Data on family biosocial factors were obtained using pretested, structured and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Diabetes mellitus was defined using American Diabetes Association criterion.
Results: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 4.7%. Eleven (1.5%) of the diabetic patients were newly diagnosed in the hospital. There were fourteen (40.0%) males and twenty one (60.0%) females with sex ratio of 1:1.5. The age ranged from 28-82 years with mean age of 47±11.2 years. The middle aged adults were predominantly affected. Family biosocial factors significantly associated with type 2 diabetes were family history of hypertension (P=.006) and diabetes mellitus (P=.048). A significantly higher proportion of the diabetic patients had family history of hypertension compared to the non-diabetic and non-hypertensive subjects. The diabetic patients were one and half times more likely to have family history of hypertension compared to their non-diabetic and non-hypertensive counterparts.
Conclusion: The study has shown the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with predilection for middle aged adult Nigerians. The associated family biosocial factors were family history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Screening adult Nigerians with family history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus for diabetes mellitus is recommended in primary care setting for family-centred preventive care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injuries among Adolescent Recreational Netballers in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa

Terry J. Ellapen, Karuli Tershia Schoeman, Leigh T. N. Zaca, Hendrik J. Van Heerden, Prem D. Ramiah

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/16966

Background: Netball injuries remain an area of concern for professional and recreational South African players. This study profiled the prevalence of acute musculoskeletal injuries among female adolescent non-elite recreational netball players in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.
Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 413 high school players who participated in the Kwa-Zulu Natal Netball School league. Players completed a self-reporting questionnaire for demographic information, acute musculoskeletal injuries and training history, mechanism of injury, types and nature of symptom, and severity of pain during the previous 12 months.
Results: Two hundred and fifty-eight (62.0%) players sustained acute musculoskeletal injuries, with the knee (31%) and ankle (23.7%) injuries being the most prevalent. The mechanisms producing the musculoskeletal injuries were poor landing (37.8%), being pushed by an opponent (22.7%), colliding with a team mate (20.8%) and rapid rotational movement (18.5%). The injured netballers have played netball for longer period of years than uninjured players (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Netballers have a high prevalence of acute musculoskeletal injuries, which are predominant in the knee and ankle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Tooth Wear Due to Dietary Factors in South Canara Population

Mithra N. Hegde, Nireeksha .

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/14643

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear due to dietary factors in South Canara population.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte Mangalore and the rural satellite centers.
Duration of the Study: June 2014 - July 2014 (1 Month).
Methodology: 2000 patients were evaluated using diagnostic instruments for presence of attrition, erosion, abrasion and abfraction, followed by the questionnaire which evaluated the prevalence of tooth wear due dietary factors in South Canara Population. Collected data were statistically analyzed using the “Statistical Package for the Social Sciences” (SPSSv16.0) software.
Statistical Analysis: Data obtained was statistical analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSv16.0). Differences between variables were analyzed using Pearsons Chi-square test.
Results: Total prevalence of tooth wear in the study population is 58.7% out of which attrition (18.9%), abrasion (25.1%) erosion (3.8%) and abfraction (10.9%) was observed. A significant increase of tooth wear in males (85.45%) was observed. In the present study prevalence of tooth wear was significant in age group of 56-65 years (68.9%) whereas attrition (57.40%) in age group >=66 and abrasion (47.42%) was significantly more in age group of 56-65 years respectively. Erosion is significantly high in age group of 26-35 years (7.2%), abfraction in age group of 36-45 years (10.3%). Nonvegetarians (32%) showed increased tooth wear with urban population having the highest prevalence (74.9%) and alcohol consumption being a major cause for erosion (57.33%). Tooth wear is an irreversible, non carious, destructive process, which results in a functional loss of dental hard tissue. Dietary factor is one of the etiologies of tooth wear, the role of acidic foods and drinks are probably important for the progression of tooth wear.
Conclusion: The response to this current study conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tooth wear due to dietary factors in south canara population stated that tooth wear was more prevalent in males and most affected age group was 56-65 years. Non-vegetarians showed increased tooth wear and alcohol consumption being one of the major cause for erosion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vaginal Candidiasis Infection among Pregnant Women in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

O. R. Ezeigbo, F. C. Anolue, I. A. Nnadozie

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/18264

Epidemiological monitoring of vaginal candidiasis infection associated with preterm delivery and death of the infants is highly desirable especially on pregnant women. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis and the occurrence of Candida species in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (not necessarily presenting any disease symptoms) in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. Selection was by subject consent and presence at the clinics. Vaginal swab and urine samples were collected from 400 pregnant women between the months of May and October, 2014. Candida species were identified using sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). All cultures were screened for the presence of Candida albicans using the germ tube test. Out of 400 pregnant women sampled, 126 (31.5%) tested positive. The age group 19-28 years had the highest prevalence rate with 48 (39.7%) while 49 years and above recorded the least prevalence rate – 23 (26.7%). The result also showed that women at their third trimester recorded the highest prevalence rate of 71 (38.0%). In terms of the effect of the levels of education, the illiterate pregnant women recorded the highest rate with 22 (46.8%) while the least was obtained from those with tertiary education. Based on their occupation, the traders recorded the highest rate -76 (47.8%) while house wives had the least with 8 (8.3%). There is a need for routine surveillance and education of pregnant women on Candida albicans as a holistic procedure in antenatal care.

Open Access Review Article

Novel Therapy for Oral Cancer - Gene Therapy an Update

N. Anil Kumar, Anchala Agrawal, R. Sreedevi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/15317

Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives and had great potential as a novel therapeutic modality. Progress in molecular biology, especially molecular medicine is now changing the basics of genetic disease. This technology takes advantage of our understanding of cancer at the molecular level. It has been exploited to develop new strategies for killing cells selectively or arresting their growth. This is new technique, being developed which offers incredible pledge for the upcoming therapeutic modality in oral cancer treatment. The aim of this paper is to review delivery routes, vector design, therapeutic applications and possible obstacles faced by gene therapist.