Open Access Case Report

Pyogenic Granuloma: An Unusual Presentation

Mayuri Vajawat, P. C. Deepika, Usha Hegde

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/17312

Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasia seen in the oral cavity. It arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It is most commonly seen in females in their second decade of life due to vascular effects of hormones. This paper presents an unusual form of pyogenic granuloma and its treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Body Mass Index on Visual Reaction Time: A Cross-sectional Analytical Study

Choon Wei Ngo, Hui Ying Loh, Gee Anne Choo, Rammiya Vellasamy, Mogaratnam Anparasan

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/19194

Aims: To determine the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and Visual Reaction Time (VRT) in medical students.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional Analytical Study

Place and Duration of Study: Melaka Manipal Medical College, Melaka, Malaysia, between October 2014 and November 2014.

Methodology: We included 112 students (47 men, 65 women; age range 17-27 years) without medical conditions including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disorders and diabetes, which are known to affect cognitive function. Students were asked to complete a standard questionnaire before having their height measured using calibrated measuring tape in Frankfort plane, recorded to nearest 1cm and their weight measured using electronic weighing balance, recorded to nearest 0.1 kg. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using Quatelet Index, and categorized using Asian BMI. Visual Reaction Time (VRT) was recorded using validated Human Benchmark program.

Results: Significant difference was seen in different groups in BMI, namely underweight, normal and overweight, with respect to visual reaction time. The other variables such as gender, ethnicity, caffeine consumption, fatigue level, exercise and handedness are not significantly associated with VRT.

Conclusion: Underweight individuals have been shown to have prolonged median visual reaction time as compared to their normal and overweight BMI counterparts. Further study on this is needed as BMI may not correlate well with the body fat composition of subjects, for which we propose further study to use waist-hip ratio instead.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Cheiloscopy as a Tool for Gender Dimorphism in a Rural Indian Population

Ahmad Naeem, Ali Mariyam, A. K. Verma, Kumar Pankaj

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/18969

Introduction: The uniqueness of human lip prints can be used for gender dimorphism. Cheiloscopy is an investigational technique under forensic science that deals with the study of uniqueness of lip prints. It has already been established that lip prints are unique to each individual; its comparison at the crime site with that of the suspect might be helpful.

Aims and Objectives: The specific aim of this study was to study the lip prints as a tool for gender dimorphism while the specific objective was to evaluate the uniqueness of lip prints.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 60 Dental students within the age group of 18 to 25 years. The pattern of lip prints was recorded by two methods and classified according to Suzuki and Tsushihashi’s classification. Data was analyzed using SPSS package (version 12) and Chi square test was used to analyze and compare the lip print patterns.

Results: It was seen that no two lip prints matched with each other. Type I and I’ pattern was seen only in females; type II pattern showed almost equal distribution between males and females whereas type III, IV was predominant in males. None of the subjects presented with Type V.

Conclusion: It was concluded that cheiloscopy can act as a tool for gender dimorphism and both methods of recording lip prints were equally accurate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sedentary Behaviour and Life Satisfaction in High School Students

Damian Czepiel1, Paweł F. Nowak

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/18052

In the context of cultural and socio-economical changes, emerging from the dynamic development of technical civilization, a sedentary lifestyle is a phenomenon which is more and more common.

The relationship between a sedentary lifestyle and health in the biological dimension is very often investigated, but attention should also be paid to the psychosocial aspect of being inactive.

The aim of this paper is to determine the time spent in a seated position and life satisfaction in high school students, and to study whether physical inactivity correlates with overall satisfaction with life.

For the purposes of this study 301 students, 184 women and 117 men, of the five largest high schools in Kielce (Poland) were tested.

To assess the level of satisfaction with life, the SWLS test – The Satisfaction with Life Scale in Polish adaptation by Juczyński – was used. The respondents also described how much time per day they spent sitting last week, not counting the weekend.

Respondents estimated the daily average of being seated in the working week as 8 hours. Fifteen per cent of high school students declared a completely sedentary lifestyle (12 hours or more in a sitting position). Almost 38% of the respondents reported on average, 32% low and 30% of the high level of satisfaction with their own lives. There was no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) due to the gender of the respondents. There was no significant correlation (p<0.05) between the degree of satisfaction with life and the amount of time spent in a sitting position: for the total sample (r=0.0311, p=0.591), in women (r=0.018; p=0.812) and men (r=0.046; p=0.625).

Organized forms of physical activity, health training and recreational sport serve valuable purposes which may be an individual challenge that provides to an opportunity to increase life satisfaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Histopathologically Diagnosed Mycoses: The Ibadan 37 Years Experience

B. A. F. Ngwu, A. O. Oluwasola, F. E. Iyare, J. O. Ogunbiyi, E. E. Akang

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/19301

Background: Recent studies suggest that the occurrence of mycotic infections is increasing worldwide, due to predisposing factors such as immunosuppression from chemotherapy, surgery, HIV/AIDS and debilitating diseases, but there is paucity of information regarding fungal infections in our environment.

Aim: This study aimed to characterise mycoses diagnosed histopathologically in the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan between 1970 and 2006.

Methods: The surgical pathology and autopsy records of all mycoses diagnosed during the study period were retrieved and analysed. One hundred and eighty-six mycoses were recruited.

Results: There was a progressive decline in the annual occurrence of mycoses from 19.7% to 1.1%. The cases comprised 121 males and 65 females, whose ages ranged from 6 weeks to 80 years, with 68.3% being less than 40 years of age. The mean age of the male patients (29.9±18.4 years) was not significantly different from that of the females (27.4±18.2 years), t = 0.867, df = 186, p = 0.387. The most common mycotic infections were African histoplasmosis (28%), aspergillosis (12.4%), mycetoma (9.7%), candidiasis (8.6%) and actinomycosis (7%). Systemic mycoses accounted for 62%, followed by subcutaneous mycoses (21%), cutaneous mycoses (11%) and superficial mycoses (6%). The most common sites involved were the skin (23.7%), upper and lower limbs (15.6%), nose (11.3%) and lungs (7%).

Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that fungal infections are common and account for significant morbidity and disease burden in our environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Risky Work Behaviors and Self-Reported Knee Pain among Malaysian Railway Workers

Sami A. R. AL-Dubai, Ahmad M. Qureshi, Kurubaran Ganasegeran, Andrew Dane, Kenneth E. Reckelhoff, David W. Hannah

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/19097

Background: Knee pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal pains at workplace and its prevalence ranges from 10 to 60%. Risky work behaviors are established risk factors. They result in functional impairment, disability and reduce quality of life.

Objectives: This study aims to determine the relationships between risky work behaviors and knee pain among Malaysian railway workers.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 513 railway workers across eight states within Peninsular Malaysia. Socio-demographics, risky work behaviors, occupational safety and history of knee pain were obtained by direct interviews using a structured closed ended questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: The prevalence of self-reported knee pain over the past one year was 31.6%. Multivariate analysis yielded six significant predictors of knee pain: Socio-demographics (tertiary education); risky work behaviors (lifting or carrying heavy objects, working in uncomfortable position of knee joint, repeated flexion and extension of knee joint, continuous sitting work); and occupational safety (applying Personal Protective Equipment - PPE during work).

Conclusion: The significant associations between knee pain and risky work behaviors in railway workers point to urgent need for preventive measures, particularly in high risk occupations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Perceptions about Tuberculosis in Agropastoral Communities in Northern Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study

Andrew Martin Kilale, Esther Ngadaya, Gibson Benard Kagaruki, Yakobo Leonard Lema, Julius Muhumuza, Bernard James Ngowi, Sayoki Godfrey Mfinanga, Sven Gudmund Hinderaker

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/18973

Aim: To determine knowledge and perceptions about tuberculosis in agropastoral communities in Northern Tanzania.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study on habits and attitudes to tuberculosis.

Methods: The study was conducted between June 2011 and May 2012.We enrolled tuberculosis patients registered at Mount Meru Hospital in Arusha municipal, Enduleni Hospital in Ngorongoro district, and Haydom Lutheran Hospital in Mbulu district. In addition we selected for comparison some of their household relatives and individuals from the neighborhood. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Knowledge about tuberculosis was assessed by questions concerning causes, symptoms, modes of transmission and prevention and treatment. Key variables for assessment of perception on tuberculosis included: individuals considered most at risk, and misconceptions.

Results: We recruited 164 respondents of whom 25% were confirmed tuberculosis patients, 41.5% relatives of the patients and 33.5% neighbors. Females constituted 48.8% of all respondents. Of all the participants, only two of the neighbors had never heard about tuberculosis in their life time. Even though 99% had heard about tuberculosis, specific knowledge on causes, prevention and treatment was poor. A total of 67.7% thought that transmission of tuberculosis occurs during sexual intercourse. Respondents thought that risk from tuberculosis was higher among adults (68.9%), alcohol users (39.6%), smoking (26.8%), consumption of raw animal products (6.1%) and childhood (23.2%). 

Conclusion: Our study shows that study participants had heard about tuberculosis but specific knowledge was low. Misconceptions surrounding causes, transmission, prevention and treatment of the disease were common. Selection of appropriate channels for public health education and awareness programmes targeting knowledge about prevention and control of tuberculosis in agropastoral communities may improve this situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lack of Association between Halitosis and the Presence of Streptococcus mutans in Saliva

Jannan Ghapanchi, Fereshteh Kamali, Zahra Jalaly, Hooman Ebrahimi, Abdollah Bazargani, Sara Poor Shahidi, Mehrdad Vossoughi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/19571

Background: Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacteria which plays a major role in tooth decay. S. mutans is among the bacterial agents that initiate biofilm formation on the tooth surface and other bacteria will added then to the attached bacteria to make dental plaque. Some of these secondary bacteria are important agents in halitosis

Objectives: To compare the presence of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of patients with halitosis and control group, using culture method.

Materials and Methods: Saliva specimens of 100 patients referring to diagnosis ward of Shiraz medical school were collected. 51 patients (34 female and 17 male) complaining of halitosis were considered as study group and 49 patients (31 female and 18 male) without halitosis as control group. All specimens were cultured on MSB agar media and isolates were identified as S. mutans by traditional tests. The number of S. mutans was determined as cfu/ml in each patient saliva.

An organoleptic evaluation was carried out during the initial consultation with the distance of operator to patient (1 m =grade 3) and (30 cm =grade 2 and 10 cm =grade 1).

Results: Of 51 patients with halitosis in 11 (21.61%) patients saliva S. mutans were detected. In 49 patients of control group, 14 subjects (28.6%) showed growth of S. mutans. There was no Statistical difference between halitosis group and control group in the frequency of Streptococcus mutans detection (OR= 0.69, 95% C.I: 0.28-1.71, p=0.419). Statistical analysis also did not show any significant difference between the number of S. mutans colonies per ml of saliva between halitosis and control groups (p=0.287).

Conclusion: Our findings showed that there was no association exists between halitosis and the Streptococcus mutans presence in saliva.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early-Onset Severe Preeclampsia in Nigerian Women: Determining a Balance between Maternal Wellbeing and Fetal Survival in a Resource-Limited Setting

Nosakhare O. Enaruna, Jedidiah D. Sodje

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/19217

Background: Preeclampsia in Nigerian women is considered to have a rapidly progressive clinical course.

Aim: In the present study we sought to determine the most appropriate gestational age (GA) for delivery in severe preeclampsia occurring preterm to achieve optimal neonatal outcome, without causing undue maternal compromise.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria between June 2012 and May 2014.

Methodology: Information on the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical management and outcome of women with severe preeclampsia was extracted from case records and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and GraphPad InStat 3 software.

Results: We included 312 women in the study. The median GA at delivery was 35 weeks. The incidence of eclampsia was 2.5% (102/4,106). Eclampsia occurred 1.5-fold, 1.6-fold and 1.6-fold more, respectively with proteinuria of ≥ 3+, severe anemia and mean arterial blood pressure ≥ 120 mmHg (P=0.00, P=0.00 and P=0.00, respectively). Eclampsia, severe anemia and proteinuria ≥ 3+ were associated with maternal mortality (14.7% vs 0, P=0.00; 28.5% vs 3.7, P=0.00; and 7.6% vs 0.8, P=0.00, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that delivery before 34 weeks gestation was associated with early neonatal death (P=0.00).

Conclusions: Severe preeclampsia occurring preterm is associated with significant perinatal mortality in our hospital. An approach of selective conservative management up to 34 weeks gestation could improve fetal salvage rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect Birth Interval on Fetal Outcome at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital – A Cross Sectional Study

A. D. Geidam, G. S. Kadas, A. Inusa, B. G. Bako, A. A. Kullima

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/19604

Background: Birth spacing is a well-known and underutilized health intervention. Longer birth intervals are associated with multiple health benefits for both mother and the child.

Aim: To determine the effect of birth interval on fetal outcome in our environment.

Methods:  A cross sectional study, conducted at the university of Maiduguri teaching hospital. The subjects were multiparous women carrying singleton pregnancy who come to deliver at the hospital Obstetrics and Gynaecology unit during the study period. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain their sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics. The effect of birth interval on fetal outcome was determined using χ2 test.

Results: During the study period, 530 women fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of which complete data was obtained in 500 women; a response rate of 94.3%. The mean age of the study population was 28.8±5.7 years and the mean birth interval was 32.3±18.1 months. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38.93±1.87 weeks and the mean birth weight was 3270±165 gram. There was significant association between short birth interval and preterm delivery (χ2 =18.45, P=0.005) as well as fifth minute Apgar score of less than 7 (χ2 =12.112, P=0.007).

Conclusion: Short birth interval was significantly associated with preterm delivery and birth asphyxia.