Open Access Systematic Review Article

Meta-analysis of Trials Comparing Drug-eluting Stents with Bare Metal Stents: Safety and Efficacy

Hussein Rayatzadeh, Ali Reza Khoshdel, Sam Chitsaz, Ali Pasha Meysamie, Jamshid Bagheri

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24622

Background: Effects of drug-eluting stents (DESs) on clinical outcomes as well as stent thrombosis are still under debate.

Methods: Our meta-analysis included 26 randomized trials comparing DESs with bare metal stents (BMSs). The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion (TLR) and target vessel (TVR) revascularization, restenosis, and stent thrombosis.

Results: In-stent (Risk Ratio = 0.23 [95% confidence interval: 0.17 - 0.32]) and in-segment restenosis (RR = 0.31 [0.24 - 0.40]) significantly reduced in patients with DESs compared with BMSs.  Nonetheless, the all-cause mortality (RR = 0.98 [0.79 - 1.21]) and cardiac death (RR = 0.93 [0.71 - 1.21]) were not significantly different for patients receiving DESs compared with BMSs. DESs versus BMSs resulted in a significant decrease in MI (RR = 0.79 [0.67 - 0.93]), TLR (RR = 0.33 [0.29 - 0.38]), and TVR (RR = 0.47 [0.42 - 0.52]). Stent thrombosis incidence that did not differ in DESs versus BMSs until the first year after implantation, showed an upward trend in DESs compared with BMSs from then on (RR = 3.09 [1.37 - 6.99]).  

Conclusions: The use of DESs versus BMSs led to benefits in angiographic restenosis and clinical outcomes. However, higher incidence of long-term stent thrombosis warrants their cautious usage in patients at high-risk of stent thrombosis.

Open Access Case Study

A Rare Case of Acquired Axillary Cystic Hygroma in an Adult Patient

K. M. Rajyaguru, Ahmad Zakuan, Fazil Ibrahim, Shabbar Husain Abbas

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24429

A case of cystic hygroma was found in an adult male patient of 43 -year- age in the left axilla, which was non-tender cystic mass (57 x 40 x 49 mm) filled with haemorrhagic blood. It was successfully removed surgically without any complications. Being very rare presentation in the axilla of an adult, this case is reported.

Open Access Case Study

An Unpleasant Result of Imprecision: Esophageal Corrosive Injury Due to the Oral Intake of 10% Benzalkonium Chloride

Mervan Bekdas, Serkan Ozturk, Buket Kara, Seher Acar, Hulya Ozturk

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24389

Benzalkonium chloride is a skin antiseptic agent. It should be diluted before usage for cleaning of mucosal membranes; otherwise it may result in severe damage on mucosa. Herein we will report a 2 months old baby who took 10% Benzalkonium chloride orally by an accident and consequently developed esophageal damage and larynx edema. Our aim was to take attention to the Benzalkonium chloride usage. 

Open Access Case Study

Paraganglioma of Carotid Body: A Case Report

Hüseyin Pülat, Oktay Karaköse, Ismail Zihni, Kazım Çağlar Özçelik, Metin Çiriş, Huseyin Eken, Hasan Erol Eroğlu

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/23842

Paraganglioma occur from the paraganglionic stems of the autonomic nervous system. They develop from the carotid body and are known as carotid body tumours. These are sporadic, rare vascular lesions showing genetic transfer. Although they are generally benign and have a slow course, because of invasion to adjacent neurovascular tissues or pressure, early diagnosis and treatment is of importance. Diagnosis is made from a detailed history and physical examination and is confirmed with angiography. The treatment method selected in the majority of cases is surgery. In this paper, the case is presented of a 73-year old female who underwent surgery in our clinic for a diagnosis of carotid body paraganglioma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Concerning Cosmetic Surgery among Female Medical Students at the University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Tamader Al Doheyan, Ala’a Al Saad, Adwa Al Haidar, Haifa Al Fwzan, Jawaher Al Askar, Faisal Al Malki, Omar H. A. Alanzi, Mona Q. Alanazi, Wafa Q. Alanazi, Jawhra Q. Alanazi, Fahad G. Alanazi, Omar Baqadir, Abdul Rahman Q. Alanazi, Abdul Majeed Q. Alanazi, Faris Q. Alenzi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/22887

Background: This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cosmetic surgery among female medical students at King Saud University (KSU).

Methods: A quantitative observational cross-sectional approach was used to carry out the study at the KSU College of Medicine. A web-based questionnaire was first developed to collect the data necessary to fulfill the objectives of the research. The population under study included a random sample in which the questionnaire was sent to all female medical students at KSU. The sample size was estimated by using a single proportion formula with an acceptable margin of error at 5%. The sample size obtained was 384.

Results: A response rate of 99% was achieved. The mean age of the participants was 20.9±1.48.Out of 381 KSU female medical students in our study, almost all participants (360, 94.5%) have heard about cosmetic surgery. Television was the source of knowledge for more than one third (38%) of participants who had already heard about cosmetic surgery. Just over half (51.4%) of surveyed KSU female medical students recognized the best definition of cosmetic surgery as “a surgery that modifies or improves the appearance of a physical feature electively”. A great majority of participants (86%) reported knowing of a particular type of cosmetic surgery, namely breast augmentation. Almost all participants (92.4%) agreed that “women perform more cosmetic surgery than men”. Only 9% of participants reported undergoing cosmetic surgery, where most of them (19 out of 35) went through laser treatment for the skin and almost the same number had a cosmetic surgery for personal satisfaction.

Conclusion: From this research, we recommend further studies to go beyond educational institutions to the public at large, and to study different sub-populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease

Javier Olazarán, Pablo García-Polo, Daniel García-Frank, Alicia Quirós, Juan Antonio Hernández-Tamames, Carmen Acedo, Juan Álvarez-Linera, Ana Frank

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24034

Background/Aims: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the structural magnetic resonance imaging correlates of depressive symptoms at the initial clinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Methods: Subjects aged 65 or more were categorized as prodromal AD (n=18), mild AD (n=35), or normal cognition (n=76). Depressive symptoms were measured by means of the 15-item abridged version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Potential gray matter correlates of depressive symptoms were analyzed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping software package.

Results: Significant results were obtained in the prodromal AD group only. In that group, depressive symptoms were related to atrophy in the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) (p≤0.01, FWE corrected).

Conclusion: Our results, added to the existing literature, suggest that dysfunction in left-sided, cognitively and functionally salient, cortical regions along with relative preservation of deficit awareness, provided by the right hemisphere, explain depressive symptoms in the initial clinical stages of AD.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Compare the Pursuance of Ultrasonic Activation at Distinct Planes of Endodontic Therapy on Filling Superiority of Different Root Canal Sealers

Veeramachaneni Chandrasekhar, Laharika Rudrapati, Vijetha Badami, S. Anita Rao, Muralidhar Tummala, Chandrakanth Majethi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/23758

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of ultrasonic activation at different levels of endodontic therapy on filling quality of various sealers.

Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human single rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=15) based on the sealer used to obturate the root canal instrumented up to F4 pro taper. These groups were subsequently divided into 3 sub-groups (n=5) each depending on the activation protocol followed in the study (i.e., no activation of irrigant /sealer, activation of final irrigant, activation of both irrigant and sealer). All samples were sectioned at 2, 4, 6 mm from apex. The percentage of sealer penetration of root canals were analysed.

Results: In the groups where the final irrigant and sealer was ultrasonically agitated showed statistically significant increase in sealer penetration when compared to other groups.

I Root SP (D) showed a statistically significant difference in sealer penetration when compared to ZOE, AH plus and HRS.

Conclusion: The tubular penetration depth varies with the different physical and chemical properties of the sealers used. The use of ultrasonic activation at different levels of endodontic therapy facilitated better dentinal sealer penetration with I Root SP and AH Plus. I Root SP has solely satisfied and surpassed the test of better sealer penetration even at the apical level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency Distribution of Hemoglobin Variants among Teenagers

A. A. Adeyemi, A. O. Ladipo, O. A. Omolade, D. D. Ogbaro

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/23426

Aim: The intent of this study is to report the distribution of hemoglobin variants among teenagers in South -West Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place/Duration: Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, South-West Nigeria between September 2013 and March 2015.

Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) variants were determined in two thousand, four hundred and six teenagers using the alkaline electrophoresis method.

Results: The distribution of Hemoglobin electrophoresis is as follows; HbAA 1821 (75.7%), HbAS 498 (20.7%), HbAC 47 (2.0%), HbCC 01 (0.0%), HbSC 12 (0.5%), HbSS 27 (1.1%).

Conclusion: The incidence of hemoglobinopathies is reduced among the teenagers in South- West Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramic Core Thickness on Fracture Thickness of All-ceramic Restorations

Ezzato 'llah Jalalian, Amirali Shirian, Esmat Jafarpour, Mona Hajighadimi, Farin Shamshirgar

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/23493

Statement of the Problem: Fracture strength is fundamental for the long-term success and clinical service of all-ceramic restorations. Core thickness is an important factor affecting fracture strength.

Purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess and compare the fracture strength of 0.4 mm and 0.7 mm core thicknesses.

Materials and Methods: In this in vitro, experimental study, one brass die was prepared with classic chamfer finish line design (0.8 mm depth). An impression was made from the metal die and poured with epoxy resin. The epoxy resin die was scanned and lithium disilicate glass ceramic core was fabricated by the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique. IPS e.max cores with 0.4 and 0.7 mm thicknesses were fabricated using CAD/CAM technique. Ten samples were fabricated of each thickness and veneered with IPS e.max. After adhesive bonding onto the die, they were vertically loaded using a universal testing machine until fracture. The data were statistically analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and t-test.

Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD) of fracture strength were 1754±313.47 and 1073±202.81 N, for 0.7 mm and 0.4 mm cores, respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed normal distribution of data; thus, t-test was applied for comparison of the two groups (p<0.001). The fracture strength of 0.7 mm core was significantly greater than that of 0.4 mm core.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that increasing the core thickness improves the fracture strength. However, the mean fracture strength values obtained for 0.4 and 0.7 mm core thicknesses were far greater than the load threshold applied in the oral cavity; thus, both thicknesses can be successfully used in the clinical setting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of the Causes of Musculoskeletal Injuries of Different Age Groups in Local Society

S. Shetewi, B. Z. Shakhreet, S. Jastaniah, K. Khashoggi, R. Jastaniah

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24971

Aims: To study the types of all possible injuries in different age groups and its prevalence in the Saudi society, especially in the city of Jeddah and its causes.

Study Design:  A prospective study with a special questionnaire to collect data.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Radiology (X-ray Unit), King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for 6 months.

Methodology: A questionnaire developed by the authors was used to collect data. The questionnaire had two parts. The first part was used to collect demographic data, and the second part was used to determine the type of injuries (trauma, motor vehicle accident, sudden and chronic). The subjects of the survey were chosen randomly from the radiology department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH). Then, SPSS 15.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Data are presented using descriptive statistics and were analyzed using the chi-squared test.

Results: The participants (subjects) were male (56.5%) and female (43.5%) that had a mean age of 28.98±1.09 years, a mean height of 148.02±1.55 cm, and a mean mass of 58.71±1.63 kg. The older adults were the majority (32.2%) in this study followed by pediatric (30.6%) where the immune is lower than the other age groups’ categories and is more affected by musculoskeletal injuries.

The common injuries of the different musculoskeletal system were explored and obtained. That the highest percentage is related to trauma (58.9%) in all age groups, where the dominant percentage in trauma was in the pediatric age group (27.6%).

Through our study, it was found that there is a high significant relationship (p < 0.05) with a degree of freedom is (df=12) between age groups and type of injuries for all genders.

Conclusion: More education needs to be provided for our community in preventing and limiting personal injury especially in younger age groups.