Open Access Short Research Article

Awareness of the Oral Cancer Risk Factors in People from Nothern-Eastern Region of Poland

D. Dziemiańczyk-Pakieła, A. Ostrowska, N. Tołoczko-Iwaniuk, P. Bortnik, J. Reszeć, Stanisława Zyta Grabowska

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25800

Background: The aim of the study presented in this paper is to investigate patient knowledge about the existence of oral cancer and the awareness of the impact of smoking on the development of this malignancy.

Methods: Patients managed at the Department of Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery in Bialystok, Poland, voluntarily completed an anonymous questionnaire concerning this issue. The collected clinical material was stratified by the respondents’ age and was subjected to statistical analysis.

Results: The percentage of smokers was 53.2% of the subjects from the Group 1, 54.8% in the Group 2 and 31,4% in the Group 3. A total of 64.3%, 65.5%, 84.9% of people from each group respectively believed that smoking could increase the risk of cancer. Unfortunately, only 44% of the subjects from Group 1 and slightly over 33% in the other age groups knew that cancer can also develop in the oral cavity. Most of respondents (90,3%) confirm that the widened knowledge about oral cancer would induce the change of their harmful habits.

Conclusion: Our research clearly points the lack of appropriate patients’ knowledge about oral cancer and smoking in most of the study population. Most of people are conscious about this problem and declare the willingness of expanding their knowledge in this field. Future health-promoting programmes and campaigns organised to prevent cancer should raise the society’s awareness of the risks of smoking to oral health. The higher the patient awareness of a given issue, the greater the readiness to prevent the disease.

Open Access Minireview Article

Hunter Syndrome

Munther K. Alkhalil, Mohamed F. Alabsi, Nermin F. Alabsi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24756

The mini review of Hunter syndrome aimed to explore etiology, incidence, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment by reviewing recent literatures. Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II: MPS II) is a genetic lysosomal storage disease which is rare, It's caused by deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S).  Initial manifestations of Hunter syndrome are not present at birth, but often begin around ages of 2 to 4, which may include macrocephaly, thickened lips, facial features with typical coarseness like a prominent forehead, a nose with a flattened bridge, and an enlarged protruded tongue, cardiomyopathy, bone deformities, Mongolian spots over the buttocks and neurologic deficits. Hunter syndrome is commonly diagnosed by urine test for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Management of MPS II involves palliative treatment, or hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) which is more effective at an early stage than the enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by Idursulfase. Intrathecal ERT is under clinical trial and fusion protein treatments, and gene therapy is under development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges of Malignant Small Bowel Obstruction – Results of a State Surgical Mortality Dataset

Skyle Murphy, Arkadiusz Peter Wysocki, Jennifer Allen, Therese Rey-Conde, John B. North

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26388

Background: Small bowel obstruction is a common acute surgical pathology. Despite the substantial postoperative mortality associated with small bowel obstruction (SBO), there is limited evidence to support clinical decision-making. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in system, patient and operative features in adults who died following operative treatment of malignant versus nonmalignant small bowel obstruction.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of adults with SBO who died in hospital while under the care of a surgeon. Data was collected by the Australian and New Zealand Audit of Surgical Mortality from Queensland hospitals between January 2009 and December 2014.
Results: 523 patients died post-operatively following surgical treatment of small bowel obstruction over the six-year study period. The most common etiologies were adhesive (41%), malignancy (25%) and hernia (16%). Compared to those with a nonmalignant etiology, patients with malignant SBO were younger (P < 0.001) but had a longer mean pre-operative inpatient admission (P = 0.007), and were more likely to require an anastomosis at the time of operation (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Despite being younger, patients with malignant small bowel obstruction are challenging to manage. Further studies are needed to help surgeons manage patients with malignant small bowel obstruction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Action of the Dillapiole-rich Oil of Piper aduncum against Dermatomycoses Caused by Filamentous Fungi

Roseane G. Ferreira, Marta C. Monteiro, Joyce Kelly R. da Silva, José Guilherme S. Maia

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26340

Aims and Study Design: Piper aduncum L. is a Brazilian plant with many biological properties attributed to its dillapiole-rich essential oil. Despite the development of antibiotics, bacterial and fungal infections are still a public health issue in the medical field. This study measured the antimicrobial activity of the dillapiole-rich essential oil of P. aduncum against pathogenic skin microorganisms.

Place of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy and Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Science, Federal University of Pará, Brazil. This work was performed in 2014.

Methodology: Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Cromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have analyzed the oil and its dillapiole-rich fraction. The determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values was carried out by microdilution method and counting of formed colonies.

Results: For the strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533 and clinical isolate), the oil and its dillapiole-rich fraction exhibited MIC values of 500 μg/ml while the MFC values were 1,500 μg/ml for the oil and 1,000 μg/ml for the fraction rich in dillapiole. For clinical isolates of T. rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, MIC values of 500 μg/ml and MFC 1,500 μg/ml were equal for the oil and the dillapiole-rich fraction, respectively. For clinical isolates of Microsporum canis and M. gypseum, the MIC and MFC values were 250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml, respectively. For strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 40152 and clinical isolate), the oil and its dillapiole-rich fraction have shown the same MIC value of 3.9 μg/ml while the MFC values were 7.8 μg/ml for the strain ATCC 40152, and 15.6 μg/ml for the clinical isolate. The oil and dillapiole-rich fraction did not show antibacterial activity against the strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and its clinical isolate

Conclusion: The dillapiole-rich essential oil of P. aduncum and its dillapiole-rich fraction demonstrates significant antifungal activity against dermatophytes, filamentous fungi and potent antifungal activity against non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parent’s Adiposity, Better Predicts Their Child’s Adiposity than Socio-economic Status in a Sample of 2689 Children Aged 8 to 15 Year in Urban Area in Cameroon: A Pilot Study

M. C. Ngo-Song, P. C. Fouejeu-Wamba, J. L. Ngondi, K. Cianflone, J. Oben

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/22288

Background: Cameroon, as many Sub-Saharan African countries, is undergoing epidemiological transition. Parents as well as well their children are getting overweight and obese, mainly in large cities.

Aims: This was a pilot study to identify the relationship between parents, environment and children body size in urban Cameroon.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: In year 2010, between February and May. 25 selected schools in urban areas.

Methods: Over three thousand and three hundred school age children were selected during investigations, including about 51.8% girls. The questionnaire used was set as follows (i) identification, (ii) collection of parent’s information as ethnicity (region of origin), education, occupation, income and (iii) detailed information on children and anthropometrics. Body sizes were defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Finally, 2689 children (52.2% Girls) were pooled for further analysis.

Results: Positive correlation was observed between child adiposity and pocket money; as with BMI for girls (r=0.342, P<0.001) and boys (r=0.225, P<0.001). Boys adiposity was correlated to family size (BMI, r=0.181, P<0.05), with gestational age at birth (waist, r=0.214, P<0.05) and birth weight (waist, r=0.293, P<0.01). Girl’s adiposity did not show such associations. Mothers’ adiposity was more correlated to girl’s adiposity (waist, r=0.184, P<0.01 and BMI, r=0.183, P<0.01) as compared to boys. While no significant relationship was observed between parents’ education level, occupation, and income. Considering ethnicity, parents’ of west region were up to 3.2 times more at risk of having heavy children (all P=0.01).

Conclusions: In Cameroon urban area, parent’s ethnicity and body size are better predictors of their child’s adiposity. This pilot study highlight that further investigations are required to evaluate the contribution of each factor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Serum Sarcosine, Total and Free Testosterone Levels in Patients with Prostate Disorders in Sokoto, Nigeria

N. K. Nnamah, P. O. Anaja, I. A. Mungadi, L. S. Bilbis, M. K. Dallatu

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25285

Although radiation and surgery are generally regarded as effective for treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) in majority of men, diagnosis and prognosis remains poor in patients with progressive disease. Disease –specific metabolites represent the effective end points with considerable ability to identify men at increased risk of disease progression. In the current study, serum levels of Sarcosine, free and total testosterone (fTesto and tTesto) were assayed to evaluate the tumorigenic properties of PCa in our locality. In this study, 150 prostate cancer, 200 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Patients diagnosed and 200 volunteer matched controls were evaluated. Serum sarcosine   were 64.94±0.81 nmol/dl, 118.70±1.80 nmol/dl and 134.13±2.21 nmol/dl in PCa, BPH patients and controls respectively. Serum tTesto and fTesto levels were 5.09±0.15 ng/ml, 5.12±0.11 ng/ml and 13.42±0.26 pg/ml, 5.72±0.20 ng/ml, 13.93±0.24 ng/ml and 11.73±0.47 pg/ml in PCa, BPH patients and controls respectively. Values differ significantly (p˂0.05) between PCa, BPH patients and controls in all the analytes. Attempt was also made to define the reference ranges of these analytes in various age groups of the controls. We recommend the inclusion of Serum levels of Sarcosine, tTesto and fTesto into multiplex biomarker panel for PCa and BPH detection in our localities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Increase of Histamine Concentration in the Sputum of Exposed Workers a Case-control Study

Bashkim B. Kastrati, Pëllumb Islami, Toskë L. Kryeziu, Mire Marku Rugova, Taulant Kukaj, Hilmi Islami

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25342

Background: The key aim of this study was to determine the relation between possible changes in the lung function and the concentration of histamine in the sputum of exposed workers and control group. The research aimed to establish possible correlation between participants exposed to air pollutants at workplaces, especially participants who are smokers and non-smokers, workers in industrial - mining basins and mines. This case-control study assessed the COPD risk attributable to occupational exposures among mine workers. 

Methods: The participants in this case control study included 420 workers out of which 60 represented the control group. The study determined, histamine concentration in the sputum, pH, arterial partial oxygen pressures (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in capillary blood and, spirometric parameters FVC/FEV1 using "Godart" pulmo-test model spirometer. Airways resistant (Rt) and intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV) were measured using a ‘Siemens’ model Body Plethysmograph. Specific resistance (SRt) was calculated using the formula (SRt=Rt x ITGV). Qualitative exposure indicators were developed based on both, work duration and exposure histories.

Results: Histamine presence in sputum was at a significant level (F=10, 59, p<0.0001) just for the whole group of exposed workers compared to the control group.  However, significant values were found for the smokers’ category only in the case of Leposavić participants, respectively at the level (p<0.05). Apparently the obtained values for partial pressures at level PaO2 (F = 13,387, p<0.001) and PaCO2 (F = 10,79, p<0.001), where the lowest value of PaO2 was at participants of Leposavić basin, namely 8.91 kPa, whereas the highest was at the control group, RS 10.04 kPa (SD5.3). PaCO2 was also the lowest to the workers in Leposavić, 4.53 kPa (SD2.6), while the highest was in Ajvalia 5.01 kPa (SD5.4). Hence we consider that these findings are not just casual but they are rather in a direct correlation with increased values of histamine in sputum of the participants. At the same time spirometric parameter values were at a significant level [Tiffneau Index (p<0.001), FEV1 (p<0.0001), SRt (p<0.0001)]. Hence, these results suggest that histamine might participate in the pathogenesis of functional disorders in exposed workers.

Conclusions: Mine workers are at increased risk for COPD as a result of broad and complex effects of many exposures acting independently or interactively. Control methods should be implemented to prevent workers’ exposures, as well as smoking cessation should be promoted. “Hermetization” of technology processes, which is currently a world trend in “dirty” technologies, practically disables pollutants' emission at working places and the atmosphere.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between HBV DNA Positivity and Migraine in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis

Ozcan Deveci, Sefer Varol, Emel Aslan, Tahsin Celepkolu, Recep Tekin, Fatma Bozkurt, Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/24904

Purpose: Migraine headache is one of the oldest diseases known to mankind, affecting thousands of people throughout the world. The objective of this study is to compare the frequency of migraines in the patient group previously diagnosed with chronic hepatitis-B to the migraine frequency in the healthy control group.

Materials and Methods: Patients who presented to Dicle University Hospital and who were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis-B were enrolled in the study. The viral hepatitis markers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis-b virus DNA (HBV DNA), and their levels were included in the evaluation. The control group consisted of healthy individuals with no hepatitis-B detected in the previous screenings. Chronic fatigue observed in the patient group was recorded, and the degree of fatigue was assessed according to the Visual Analogue Scale to Evaluate Fatigue Severity (VAS-F). Approval of the local ethics committee was obtained for this study.

Results: The frequency of migraines in patients who tested positive for HBV DNA was significantly higher than in those who tested negative for HBV DNA (p<0.05). Chronic fatigue was also significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group (p=0.01), and  their HBV DNA levels were correlated with the VAS-F score (r=0.532; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Migraine was found to be correlated with fatigue and the HBV DNA ratio in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity Property of Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles from Aqueous Leaf Extract of Calotropis procera (Apple of Sodom) on MCF-7 Cell Line

Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu, Daniel Iduh Stephen

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26385

The use of gold nanoparticle in drug delivery has emerged as a promising avenue to reduced toxicity and frequency of dosage while maintaining therapeutic effects and biocompatibility. Therefore, the possibility of developing eco-friendly metallic gold nanoparticles is evaluated. To achieve this, aqueous leave extracts of Calotropis procera was used to synthesis gold nanoparticles and its cytotoxic effect was investigated. The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) produced were characterized using Ultra Violet–Visible spectroscopy, Zeta-sizer nano, High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy and Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The cytotoxic ability of the synthesized gold nanoparticles was evaluated on MCF-7 cell using MTT assay. The result of Ultra Violet–Visible spectroscopy showed development of gold nanoparticle reaction at 550 nm of Surface Plasmon Resonance and average particle size of 45 nm was confirmed using nano Zeta-sizer. EDAX profile result suggested the presence of gold at 2.30ke while FTIR result confirms the presence of biomolecules serving as reducing and capping agents on the synthesized gold nanoparticle with a strong signal at 3426 cm of the hydroxyl group of alcohol or phenol. The cytotoxic effect of the synthesis gold nanoparticles shows cell viability decreased as the concentration of AuNPs increased from 0.156 mg to 5 mg with an IC50 of 0.312 mg/l. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the bioreductive capability of aqueous leaf extract of Calotropis procera to produced gold nanoparticle and its cytotoxicity effect on MCF-7cell line.

Open Access Review Article

Oral Rehabilitation of Patients with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: When, Why and How to Intervene

Ioulia Ioannidou, Eleni Kotsiomiti, Konstantinos Marathiotis

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25919

Ηypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) patients present absence of many permanent teeth, alveolar deficiency and severely affected maxillofacial skeleton. The management commonly includes a series of removable dentures and orthodontic appliances, adapted constantly to the child's growth and development. The dental literature lacks a protocol to elucidate when, why and how to intervene for the modification of jaw growth pattern and for the treatment of dental and occlusal problems to maximize the clinical therapeutic outcome. The aim of the present review was to propose and redefine the treatment plan for the orofacial rehabilitation of patients with HED.

Normal craniofacial growth is described, followed by a review of published findings about facial growth in HED patients. Subsequently, the treatment strategy is presented, focusing on the stages of physical growth and dental development: (a) infancy and early childhood (primary dentition years), (b) late childhood (mixed dentition years), (c) adolescence (early permanent dentition years) and (d) adulthood (permanent dentition years), and to the special characteristics related to each developmental stage. Finally, the treatment possibilities and restrictions are considered, and a protocol defining when, why and how to intervene is proposed.