Open Access Clinical Practice Article

A Simplified Method of Constructing an Open Hollow Bulb Using Tissue Conditioning Material for Maxillary Defect in Complete Edentulous Patient

Nafij Bin Jamayet, John Kariuki, Ahmed Mushfiqur Rahman, Mohammad Khursheed Alam

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/27708

Introduction: Maxillary resection in completely edentulous arch gives a challenging condition for an obturator to achieve maximum seal and retention. But one of the major concerns of the prosthesis is it often get heavy and bulbous part could not reach at the greater extent of the defect. As a result functional outcome would be less. Various techniques are employed in fabrication of this complex prosthesis depending on configuration of the defect.

Dental Technique: To solve this issue in the current report we have outlined a reliable easy and fast technique to fabricate an open bulb from a finished denture with tissue conditioning material by functional impression technique.

Open Access Case Study

Two Sisters with Gaucher Disease: Focus on the Effectiveness of Imiglucerase Treatment: Case Reports

Mehmet Celik, Semra Ayturk, Mustafa Yilmaztepe, Ahmet Kucukarda, Onur Mert, Sibel Guldiken, Ahmet Muzaffer Demir, Armagan Tugrul

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26343

Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by beta glucocerebrosidase enzyme deficiency leading glucosylceramide deposition in reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells. Gaucher cell loaded by glucosylceramide usually infiltrates bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes, causing multisystemic manifestations. Intravenous replacement of enzymes such as velaglucerase alfa, taliglucerase alfa and imiglucerase, which are recombinant DNA-produced analogues of human β-glucocerebrosidase, is the main therapy in Gaucher disease.  In this report, we presented two sisters diagnosed with Gaucher disease in our clinic and the effectiveness of 4-year imiglucerase treatment was evaluated.

Open Access Method Article

Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy: Is Anything Else to Facilitate the Technique?

Mohammad Hassan Samandari, Navid Naghdi, Milad Etemadi Sh

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26880

Nowadays bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is the most common technique for treatment of mandibular skeletal deformities. One of the most sensitive stages in BSSO is recognition of inferior alveolar nerve entrance. This technical note presents a noble and safe approach for medial osteotomy in BSSO which is based on anatomy of mandible during the surgery. In this approach osteotomy initiates at the junction of buccal and lingual cortices of ramus and will continue parallel to buccal cortex and in the same direction with sagittal cut. Compared to conventional BSSO technique, less neurosensory complications, risk of condylar sagging and bad splitting are expected in suggested modification. The operation time, healing and recovery periods are shorter, which cause more convenience for both surgeon and patient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Factors Influencing Adoption of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice by Nursing- Mothers in Selected Communities in Imo State, Nigeria

S. N. O. Ibe, O. Obasi, E. A. Nwoke, B. O. Nworu, C. O. Amadi, C. R. Nwufo

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26299

Aim: To determine the influence of socio-economic characteristics of the nursing-mother on the adoption of exclusive breastfeeding practice, among rural nursing-mothers in Imo State, Nigeria.
Study Design: This study employed descriptive survey design.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in three rural communities selected from the three senatorial zones in Imo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted between December, 2012 and June, 2013.
Methodology: The entire population was enlisted for the study. The target population of the study was 405 nursing-mothers with children aged twenty-four months and below in the selected communities. However, 340 nursing-mothers out of the 405 responded. Instruments for data collection were structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Reliability of the instrument was established using Crombach’s Alpha Coefficient (r = 0.8). All the households in the communities were visited and the nursing-mothers found at home on the day of the visit responded to the questionnaire. Ten nursing mothers from each of the communities participated in FGD. The socio-economic factors studied included nursing-mother’s age, educational attainment, occupation, monthly income, marital status and religion.
Results: Results of the study revealed that the percentage of exclusive breastfeeding practice was very low (13.5%) in the target communities which aligned with the national compliance level of 13%. Respondents within the age range of 15-19 years; those with no formal education; subsistence farmers and those who earn less than minimum wage had higher percentage practice than others. All the variables were statistically significant except marital status and religion.
Conclusion: Some socio-economic factors negatively influence exclusive breastfeeding practice. It was recommended that efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding be directed towards addressing the identified factors with negative influence and to also identify other factors contributing to low exclusive breastfeeding practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mammographic Breast Pattern in Postmenopausal Women in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

O. S. Bassey, T. O. Soyemi, A. T. Adeniji-Sofoluwe, A. O. Adeoye, O. A. Mosuro, T. S. Akingbola, O. O. Osofundiya, G. O. Obajimi, A. O. Oluwasola, M. O. Obajimi, O. I. Olopade

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/26928

Introduction: Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. Menopause has a significant effect on breast pattern and has been documented to have more important influence on the decline in mammographic densities than age. The aim of this study was to describe the breast parenchymal density patterns in postmenopausal women in Ibadan and correlate these with their socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics.

Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 196 postmenopausal women who had two screening views done on each breast in the Radiology Department of the University College Hospital Ibadan. Data was pulled from completed questionnaire by patient who had mammogram during the period under review. The report of the mammograms were matched with patients’ socio-demographic characteristics and entered into R statistical package for analysis.

Results: The mean age of the women was 55.0±6.8 years while their mean age at menopause was 48.4±4.6 years. The combined BI-RADS 1 and 2 breast parenchymal patterns which are associated with low risk of breast cancer, were found in 82.1% of the women. The mean difference in age at first birth between women with BI-RADS 1 and 2 and BI-RADS 3 and 4 was statistically significant P=0.035. Body mass index, family and personal history of breast cancer also showed correlation with breast parenchymal pattern, though not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The low prevalence of dense breast pattern in this study is consistent with previous findings of relatively lower prevalence of breast cancer in African women. The clustering of low mean age at birth of first child, low mean age at menopause and multi-parity, in association with the low mammographic density in majority of the women in this study further corroborates the relatively reduced risk of breast cancer in our studied population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Pattern and Biochemical Status of the Elderly in Ondo State, Nigeria

Cecilia Abiodun Olarewaju, Delana Ajao Adelekan, Ibiyemi Olasunbo Olayiwola, Oluwasanmi Moses Arigbede, Ayodeji Akinwumi Akinbodewa

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/27353


(i) To determine the dietary pattern of the elderly in Ondo State, Nigeria;

(ii) To determine the biochemical status of the respondents; and

(iii) To determine the correlation between dietary pattern and blood levels of Vitamins A, C, D, E, calcium, phosphorus and selenium.

Study Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Six Local Government Areas in Ondo State.

Methodology: Two hundred elderly men and two hundred elderly women were selected from six of the eighteen Local Government Areas (two from each of the three senatorial zones) in the State. Data was collected on dietary pattern and frequency of consumption of food items from the various food groups. We measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure of five randomly selected elderly patients attending the government hospital in each Local Government Area. Blood samples were obtained from the 30 elders and analyzed for Vitamins A, C, D, E, calcium, phosphorus and selenium contents. Food frequency scores were derived from consumption data and arranged into quartiles.

Results: Most of the subjects (77%) ate three meals daily. Animal proteins were consumed daily by 73.8% while 7.3% and 6.8% consumed vitamin A rich foods and dairy products respectively. Those with minimum of secondary education were 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.4 to 4.5) and 28.0 times (95% CI: 2.9 to 246.6) more likely to have upper half dietary pattern scores in fruits consumption and dairy products consumption.

Mean Selenium serum level was lower than normal in all elders while Vitamin E and Calcium serum levels were lower than normal in female elders only.

Conclusion: The elderly in Ondo State were of low nutrition and socio-economic status. It was suggested that health care institutions should promote dietary plans such as provision of vitamin and mineral supplements and education for them at the community level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Regulation of Feeding Behavior during Withdrawal Period in Socialized and Isolated Rats

Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian, Sulail Fatima

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/27641

Introduction: Hippocampal neurogenesis is essential for cognitive functions like memory and learning. However, other functions of hippocampus are not well understood. We aimed to study the role of hippocampus in regulation of feeding behavior during withdrawal period.

Materials and Methods: Forty eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: socialized, isolated, withdrawal isolated group and withdrawal socialized group. At the end of study, short - term memory, feeding behavior, blood glucose levels, corticosterone, copper, anxiety and neurogenesis were assessed.

Results: Socialization during withdrawal, increased food intake in rats. In isolated rats, short term memory was significantly impaired and neurogenesis was reduced. Blood glucose and anxiety levels were found to be higher in isolated rats. Socialization reduced corticosterone level and copper in serum in rats.

Conclusion: Socialization improves hippocampal neurogenesis which in turn regulates feeding behavior. Feeding behavior imparts regulated by hippocampus directly and also indirectly by co morbid psychiatric disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evidence of Overlapping Infections of Dengue, Malaria and Typhoid in Febrile Patients Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Uyo, South-South Nigeria

A. E. Moses, I. A. Atting, O. S. Inyang

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/27668

Background: Malaria, typhoid, and dengue have become significant diseases worldwide, especially in Africa due to their increasing endemicity. Similarities in signs and symptoms in infected individuals make it difficult for healthcare providers to clinically diagnose these diseases in patients presenting with feverish conditions in the clinics.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria, typhoid/paratyphoid and dengue in patients with febrile conditions attending University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo-Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study of patients with febrile conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo-Nigeria from May - August, 2014.

Methodology: A total of 145 febrile patients were investigated for malaria, typhoid/paratyphoid and dengue using thick Giemsa staining technique, microtitre plate (single antibody titre) quantitative assay (Antibody titre ≥160), and dengue NS1 Ag/IgM/IgG serology, respectively.

Results: Of the 145 patients, 51(35.2%), 10(7.0%) and 7(4.8%) had malaria, typhoid/paratyphoid and dengue, respectively. A total of 20(37.0%) males and 31(34.1%) females had malaria, while 3(2.1%) males and 7(4.8%) females had typhoid. Dengue viral markers were detected in 1(1.9%) male and 3(3.2%) females. The age range of patients in this study was <1-70 years, with mean (±SD) age of 34.1±12.7 years. The highest infected age groups were 61-70 yr, 3(60.0%) for malaria; 41-50 yrs, 3(23.1%) each for typhoid/paratyphoid and dengue, respectively. A significant association existed between age of patients and malaria and not with typhoid and dengue diseases. A total of 2(21.4%) patients had malaria/typhoid/paratyphoid co-infection, while 1(10.7%) had malaria/dengue co-infection. Dengue patients with active disease tested positive with NS1 antigen, 4(2.8%) and specific-IgM antibodies, 2(1.4%).

Conclusion: This study concludes that dengue virus as well as malaria parasite and S. Typhi/ S. paratyphi are among the aetiologic microbial agents of fever in this locality. Hence, differential diagnosis of patients with feverish conditions should not only be limited to malaria and typhoid as is always the case in our hospitals. These findings have raised serious public health concern as outbreaks of dengue may occur unnoticed if suspicion index is not raised among health care practitioners.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study on the Possible Association between Socioeconomic Status and Unmet Ophthalmic Medical Needs

Birgit-Bettina Bestges, Cay-Christian Lösche, Frank Krummenauer

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/27096

Purpose: Health care research increasingly concentrates on the putative dependence of health care access of socioeconomic determinants. For the particular aspect of ophthalmic health care the intention of this cross sectional study was to assess a possible association between socioeconomic status and lacking ophthalmological health care supplementation.

Materials and Methods: Regular visitors to the “Muelheim Tafel” social project were recruited and contrasted to administrative hospital staff, both cohorts serving as model cohorts of different socioeconomic status. The cohorts were then compared alongside visual and refractive endpoints based on a total of 110 “Tafel” participants and 68 hospital staff members. The probands’ “presenting” visual acuity was assessed by means of vision charts (in case of probands wearing glasses, the presenting visual acuity was assessed while wearing these glasses, otherwise without glasses to imitate “daily life” vision); furthermore the probands’ “best achievable” corrected visual acuity was assessed by means of an autorefractometer. The primary endpoint was defined by – in at least one eye – a simultaneous presenting visual acuity of less than or equal to 0.5 and a corrected visual acuity of more than 0.5.

Results: The primary endpoint had a prevalence of 34% in the “Tafel” cohort and of 10% in the hospital staff cohort; this difference in prevalences was found statistically significant (Fisher p<0.001). This cohort gradient was reproduced for merely all secondary visual and refractive endpoints under consideration.

Conclusion: This cross sectional investigation demonstrated a statistically significant association between socioeconomic status and deficits in ophthalmic health care in terms of best achievable visual improvement.

Open Access Review Article

Constructing a Structured Medical Presentation

Ahmed Makki

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/27129

Introduction: Giving presentation is an essential part in the medical practice. Physicians, in general are not expert in giving presentations, as it is not their daily practice. The weakness in conducting presentations comes from lack of the guidelines of making presentations and poor practice. Criticism is often directed to the facts emphasized in the presentations rather than the method of conduction. Therefore physician’s skills in making presentations have to be improved. The objective of this article is to provide the physicians or medical students with guidelines on how to prepare and deliver a structured and effective presentation in the medical practice.
Discussion: The structure of making effective presentation is based on 3 pillars (3Ps) Plan, Preparation and Performance (delivery of presentations). Plan starts with selecting an interesting topic for the audience, then to plot down the ideas and objectives with pen and paper. Sketch a script with logical flow of ideas and suggest related images or illustrations. Preparation of presentation passes through 3 steps:- Extensive reading, selective writing /typing before making interesting slides, the latter needs attractive foreground and comfortable background. Performance means the delivery process of the prepared presentation. The speech looks like telling a story, it should have a clear introduction, provocative engaging context and a logical conclusion. The needed skills and the difficulties of conducting speech, in addition to some important tips of giving presentation are fully explained in this article.
Conclusion: Presentation of teaching or research material has an important role in the work of health care professionals. The structure of medical presentation is based on three pillars: Plan, preparation and performance. Physicians should attain some skills in making effective presentation which are not sufficiently taught in the medical school.