Open Access Short Research Article

Neuroprotective Role of Green Tea Polyphenols on the Superior Colliculus in MPTP Mice Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Philemon Dauda Shallie, Kanyinsola A. Koya, Oluwadamilola Faith Shallie, Adedayo D. Adekomi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33329

Aim: This study investigated the neuroprotective role of green tea polyphenols on the superior colliculus of MPTP mice model of Parkinson’s disease.

Study Design: Twenty-five adult male mice (Mus musculus) weighing between 20-30 grams were used for this study. The mice were randomly placed into five groups of five mice each: A (Control; mice pellets), B (MPTP 10mg/kg, IP), C (MPTP + GT; 300 mg/kg GT orally), D (GT + MPTP), E (GT; 300 mg/kg).

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Anatomy, Babcock University. Between February and May 2016.

Methodology: The brains were removed weighed and the midbrain excised processed histology and stained routinely with H&E and silver stains.

Results: The results showed significant (P<0.005) reduction in the relative brain to body weight and neuronal density in the superior colliculus; characterized by neuronal atrophy as signaled by vacuolations and pyknosis in the MPTP and green tea only groups. Whereas pre-treatment with green tea polyphenol resulted in significant (P<0.005) increase in the relative brain to body weight and increase in the superior colliculus neuronal density when compared with the MPTP and green tea only groups.

Conclusion: From our results we can conclude that pre-treatment with green tea polyphenols confers greater protection on the superior colliculus in MPTP mice model of Parkinson’s disease.

Open Access Commentary

Narratives: Discovering the Social Dimensions of Disease

Bruno da Rocha Alves Lira, Leonardo Nunes Ferreira, Gabriel Pereira Bernardo, Lorena Pereira Bernardo, Ruth Figueiredo de Araujo, Marissa Rayanne Moreira de Alencar, Emília Santos Costa, Modesto Leite Rolim Neto

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33464

Narrative research includes a variety of approaches that rely on the written or spoken word, or on the visual expressions of individuals. These approaches typically focus on individuals’ lives from the lens of their own stories. The emphasis in such approaches is on the story, typically on the what and how of the narration. Indeed, narratives have become a catchword in the social sciences today; it promises to open up new fields of inquiry and in devising creative solutions to persistent problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude and Perception to Tattoos and Scarified Skin Marks in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria

P. Denen Akaa, C. N. Ahachi, Ojo Babarinde

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/32724

Aim: Tattoo art which has been practiced all over the world for centuries is undergoing a revolution. Some people like it, others don’t. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of tattooing among students and residents of Makurdi, like or dislike, who gave consent before tattooing, symbolism/motive of tattooing and whom to go to for removal of tattoos.

Study Design: A survey research using structured questionnaire as instrument for data collection among students of Benue State University and residents of Makurdi over a period of one month in January, 2017.

Methodology: Views of one hundred and seventy two residents and  students  in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria, were collated via a pre-tested structured questionnaire and analyzed on the basis of sex, age, like/dislike of tattoos, symbolism, consent given, whether one would tattoo himself if given a chance and what to do when one got tired of tattoos.

Results: Two hundred and ten questionnaires were administered and one hundred and seventy two were returned giving attrition rate of 18.1%. All returned questionnaires were completely filled. One hundred and seventy two respondents participated in the study comprising 123 males and 49 females giving a male to female ratio of 2.5:1. Twenty one respondents had tattoos giving a tattoo prevalence of 12.2%. One hundred and thirty eight (80.2%) did not like tattoos and forty two (24.4%) indicated that there was no significance to symbolism of tattoos and indeed thirty (17.4%) felt tattoos are a body mutilation. One hundred and fifty one (87.8%) indicated they will not have tattoos when given a chance to do so. Ninety seven (56.4%) believed the best person to go to for tattoo removal is a Plastic Surgeon.

Conclusion: The study showed that majority of students and residents of Makurdi metropolis in Nigeria do not like tattoos and would not like to have one when given a chance to do so. A large scale study involving other parts of Nigeria needs to be done to assess a true like/dislike of tattoos in this environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Self-rated Health of Institutionalized Elderly in Kuala Lumpur

Obinna, Francis, Onunkwor, Sami, Abdo Radman Al-Dubai, John, Arokiasamy, Hassana, Ojonuba, Shuaibu, Philip, Parikial, George, Lwin, Mie, Aye

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33515

Aims: There is a growing number of institutionalized elderly in Malaysia. This group of elderly are commonly not included in population based surveys, thus little is known about their health and well-being. This study aims to determine the self-rated health of the elderly living in institutions and the associated factors.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014, in eight elderly institutions in Kuala Lumpur. The institutions were selected randomly, and the participants were selected through stratified proportionate sampling. A total of 203 residents participated in this study. Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. P value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of poor self-rated health was 39.9%. Factors significantly associated with self-rated health included educational level (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.18-3.74), physical activity (OR=0.4, 95%CI=0.22-0.81) outdoor leisure activity (OR=0.4, 95%CI= 0.21-0.82), visual impairment (OR=1.9, 95%CI= 1.06-3.52), chronic pain (OR= 2.4, 95%CI=1.35-4.27), diabetes (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.03-3.49) heart disease (OR=4.2, 95%CI=1.25-13.74), renal failure (OR=11.5, 95%CI= 1.38-94.89), fall (OR=2.9, 95%CI= 1.28-6.48) hospitalization (OR=4.9, 95%CI= 2.43-9.86) co-morbidities (OR=3.2, 95%CI=1.30-761), and satisfaction with access to healthcare (OR=0.3 95%CI= 0.17-0.79).

Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of poor self-rated health among residents in these institutions. Factors significantly associated with self-rated health were mostly co-morbidities. There is need for interventions targeted at improving healthcare services and leisure activities for residents of these institutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving Clinicians’ and Nurses’ Response to Abnormal Vital Signs in Hospital: The Roles of Modified Early Warning Scoring System and Rapid Response System

Olusola O. Akanbi, David A. Onilede, Moses L. Adeoti, Olawale A. Olakulehin, Najeem A. Idowu, Olusegun O. Olanipekun

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/32370

Background: Most adverse events in hospitalised patients are often preceded by documented progressive deterioration of physiological parameters without appropriate responses. Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) is a simple physiological score that was developed to aid early recognition of patient at risk of deterioration and assist in timely response especially in low and middle income countries where nurse patients ratio is low.

Aim: To determine  nurses’ and clinicians’ responses to abnormal vital signs and to evaluate the usefulness of MEWS in early recognition of patients at risk of adverse outcome

Methodology: This was a retrospective case-control study reviewed case notes of 264 patients discharged alive and 243 patients who died in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso. The Patients’ relevant data and vital signs were gotten from case notes and were used to calculate Mean MEWS for each patient over 72 hours preceding outcome.

Results: One hundred and fourteen (79.72%) of 143 patients with MEWS of above six were classified to be critically ill and managed in general wards instead of higher care unit. Mean MEWS among the patients discharged alive was statistically significantly lower than the dead patients (2.7±0.7 vs. 8.0±2.6, P<.001). Mean MEWS for pulse rate (0.2±0.63 vs. 2.1±1.0P<.001) and respiratory rate (1.2±0.01 vs. 2.3±0.75, P<.001) were statistical significantly lower for the patients discharged alive. The main reason for calling attention of clinicians to deteriorating patients was gasping in 52.6% of cases which is a late sign. Responses of house officers when called upon to review critically ill patients were to inform registrars in 44.03% of cases. There was a mean delay of 131(±66.28) minutes between house officers’ review and consultants’ inputs.

Conclusion: Our study showed poor response to patients’ abnormal vital signs and significant delay in nurses’ and clinicians’ responses and decision making process; we thus suggest use of MEWS and introduction of rapid response system to aid early recognition and activation of clinicians with core competence in management of at risk patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tube Caecostomy: A Veritable Alternative in the Surgical Treatment of Advanced Appendicitis

O. Eboreime, Z. I. Asogun

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/32682

Background: Advanced appendicitis poses a serious challenge to surgeons in poor resource settings and it is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality.

Objective: To report the outcome of tube-caecostomy in the prevention of fistula formation after appendicectomy for appendicular mass, abscess or gangrenous appendix.

Methods: A retrospective study involving all patients diagnosed with appendix mass, abscess and gangrenous appendix admitted into Central Hospital Benin City from October 2005 to October 2010. Data was collated from patient’s case notes, theatre records and the ward registers. The Stamm procedure using a size 24 three-way catheter as caecostomy tube was used.

Results: A total of 14 patients underwent tube caecostomy during appendicectomy. There were 10(71.4%) males and 6(28.6%) females. The male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The ages of the patients ranged from 14-42years with mean age of 28.5 years. Seven (50%) of the cases had wound infection, three (21%) had wound dehiscence. Hospital stay ranged from 14 to33days with a mean stay of 19.1 days. No serious catheter related complications nor residual abscess were recorded and there were no mortalities in this study.

Conclusion: Tube caecostomy as a procedure performed for advanced appendicitis is a favourable alternative to interval appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy and ileostomy. The latter two procedures require an experienced surgeon and are fraught with a high morbidity and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Dynamic Thiol-Disulfide Homeostasis in Alopecia Areata Patients

Fadime Kilinc, Sertac Sener, Ayse Akbas, Salim Neselioglu, Ozcan Erel, Akin Aktas

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJMMR/2017/33535

Background: Thiols are antioxidant, organic compounds containing sulfhydryl group on their active sites. They have important roles on preventing oxidative stress. The thiol disulfide homeostasis has a vital importance in organism. Thiol disulfide imbalance is an early indicator of oxidative stress. Alopecia areata is an autoimmune skin disorder characterized with scar-free hair loss. Its pathogenesis is still unclear. Thiol disulfide homeostasis in these patients has not been studied at all.

Objective: To evaluate the thiol disulfide homeostasis in alopecia areata patients and healthy controls. 

Methods: Fortysix alopecia areata patients and 41 healty controls were included in the study. Native thiol, disulfide, total thiol levels were performed with a new and automatic spectrophotometric method. Rations of disulfide/total thiol, disulfide/ native thiol and native thiol/ total thiol were calculated as percentages.

Results: No statistically significance were detected between the values of native thiol, disulfide and total thiol in both two groups (p>0,05).

Conclusion: The dynamic thiol/ disulfide homeostasis is balance in patients with alopecia areata according to our findings. That is, the patients aren’t affected by oxidative stress. Furthermore we are suggesting that more studies with wider series should be performed.