Open Access Case Report

Palatal Foreign Body - A Case Report

Šumilin Lada, Žužul Ivona, Muhaxheri Granita, Andabak Rogulj Ana, Vidović Juras Danica, Lončar Brzak Božana

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/46656

Aims: Foreign bodies exerted in the palatal mucosa are extremely rare in clinical work. The aim of this case report was to describe a case of foreign body in the palate of an infant and to highlight that foreign bodies must be considered in the differential diagnosis of palatal lesions found in children.

Presentation of Case: A healthy 12-month child was brought by his parents to the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, since the mother accidentally noticed something in the child's mouth, a week before. The child's pediatrician and the doctor of dental medicine had examined the child and referred him for CT scan and examination at department of maxillofacial surgery. The lesion was hard on palpation and it bothered him while feeding. The child's medical history was non contributory and he was not taking any medication. Clinical examination revealed an oval white lesion in central hard palate, smooth and hard on palpation. Surrounding mucosa appeared normal. While mother was holding the child, we opened his mouth and examined the edges of the lesion with the instrumentHeidemann spatula. The lesion suddenly started to separate from palatal mucosa until it had completely fallen out. It turned out to be an artificial nail.

Discussion and Conclusion: Besides local trauma, foreign bodies of oral mucosa are potentially lethal because of the risk of ingestion or obstruction of respiratory tract. Differential diagnosis of palatal lesions in children should include a possible foreign body. A thorough clinical examination can prevent unecessary diagnostic procedures and misdiagnosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Helicobacter Pylori: Prevalence and Relationship to Hematological Parameters of Symptomatic Patients who Conducted Gastroscopy at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah

Nahla Khamis Ibrahim, Fatin Mohammad Al-Sayes, Fatma Abubakr Alidrous, Murooj Mohammedali Alahmadi, Shatha Hesham Bakor, Abrar Faisal Aljohani

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/44973

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. The study was done to determine the epidemiology of H. pylori, and its relation to the hematological parameters of symptomatic patients who conducted upper gastrointestinal (GIT) endoscopy at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done during the academic year 2016/2017. All records of the eligible cases who complained from GIT manifestations, and conducted upper GIT endoscopy at KAUH (during 2015) were assessed. Only cases with samples taken from the gastric mucosa and examined by the Rapid Urease Test (RUT) were included. Results of two sets of Complete Blood Count (CBC) before and 6 months after treatment of H. pylori were taken.  Cases were interviewed at 2017 for follow-up.

Results: Two-thousand patients’ files were reviewed with a 29.5% prevalence of H. pylori. The most frequently reported clinical presentation of H. pylori was epigastric pain (54.3%). Males had a significantly higher rate of infection compared to females. H. pylori was associated with gastric ulcer and gastritis. There was no association between H. pylori and the hematological parameters of patients. Treatment of H. pylori caused a little increase in RBCs & hemoglobin level.

Conclusions: Nearly thirty percent of the symptomatic patients who conducted upper gastro-endoscopy at KAUH were infected with H. pylori. Infection was associated with gastritis and gastric ulcer. There is no association between H. pylori and hematological parameters. Screening and management of symptomatic cases for H. pylori is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Tobacco Use

Rehana Faryal Mehdi, Fouzia Shaikh, Saeeda Baig, Muhammad Fazal Hussain Qureshi, Mahira Lakhani, Iman Zia, Wania Shahid, Danish Mohammad

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/46385

Aims: To determine the prevalence of tobacco chewing and smoking in patients diagnosed with OSCC as well as to observe the localization of OSCC, staging and grading of OSCC at the time of diagnosis.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Ziauddin dental hospital KDLB and Clifton Campus, Karachi from October 2017 to April 2018.

Methodology: Variables like age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were noted along with the detail history of different types of tobacco used, oral hygiene habits, and family history of cancer. The stage and grade of oral cancer were interpreted from the biopsy and CT scan reports according to the CAP protocol. Quantitative variables were presented as mean and standard deviation. For categorical data frequency and percentages was calculated.

Results: The oral cancer cases comprised of 38(81%) males and 9(19%) females with mean age of 49 years. The most common location of oral cancer in this study was the buccal mucosa followed by tongue and lips. The majorly consumed type of tobacco was gutka in 55% of patients followed by pan in 30%, naswar in 15%, betel nut in 11% and smoking in 11% among OSCC cases. Histological reports showed that there were equal number of moderately and poorly differentiated OSCC (n=16; 34%). According to TNM staging, in our study stage II was 34%, followed by stage I that was 32%.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the major etiological factors of OSCC among Pakistani population are chewing tobacco habits including gutka, pan, naswar, betel nut and smoking with male predominance. The incidence of OSCC can be reduced by raising oral cancer awareness among general population about carcinogenic effect of tobacco chewing and smoking and also by encouraging dental and medical professionals to conduct free oral cancer screenings.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Inducers and Inhibitors of Monooxygenase on the Activity Nitrergic System in the Microsomes in the Ischemic Liver

Saida Sayfullaeva, Khamid Karimov

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/41216

Experiments were carried out on 62 white male rats and average weighing was 180-220 g. We found that inducers and inhibitors of monooxygenase showed opposite effects on the activity of NOS in the ischemic liver microsomes. Benzonal and cimetidine, after 1 night of their introduction, had no significant effect on all studied parameters. After 3 and 10 daily using drug metabolism inducer that benzonal makes a slow speed nitrate reductase system, stimulates nitroxylenes system (eNOS), and cimetidine, on the contrary – even more nitrate reductase activates the speed system, inhibits eNOS nitroxylenes. Now, in connection with the growth of liver disease and aggressive exposure to xenobiotic with induction and inhibitory action, this problem acquires a special urgency and, surely, requires further study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation Between Predictors of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

Bright Otoghile, Odiase Oboite, Okubokekeme Otoru Otoru

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/46651

Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is becoming a respiratory disorder of public health concern. Different obesity indices such as Mallampati score, Body Mass Index, neck circumference have been identified in the literature as predictors of obstructive sleep apnoea. Studies on the relationship between these variables is however limited particularly in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between Mallampati score, Body Mass Index and neck circumference which are predictors of obstructive sleep apnoea.

Methods: The study was done among commercial drivers. The risk of obstructive sleep apnoea was assessed with Berlin questionnaire. The participants were assessed for Mallampati score, Body Mass Index; their neck circumference was measured and the correlation between these variables was done. Data collated was analyzed with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0 software.

Results: There were 105 drivers recruited into this study, they were all males with a mean age of 44.8±12.03 years and 50.5% of the drivers had high risk of sleep apnoea. There was a positive correlation between Mallampati score, Body Mass Index and neck circumference.

Conclusion: Mallampati score increase with increase in Body Mass Index and neck circumference which are all predictors of obstructive sleep apnoea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Patterns of Larynx Biopsies in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH) Sokoto, North- Western Nigeria From 2002-2012

O. M. Mohammed, D. F. Ahmad, C. C. Chinaka, I. Mohammed, A. Umar, U. Abubakar, A. O. Muhammed, R. T. Isah, A. T. Muhammad, S. D. Abubakar

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2018/30236

Background: Laryngeal cancer is the most common of the aerodigestive tract affecting both sexes and all age groups with high morbidity and mortality when left untreated.

Objectives: The study is carried out to review the histology of all larynx biopsies sent to Histopathology laboratory in UDUTH. Sokoto.

Methods: A total number of forty three (43) paraffin embedded tissue block were used for the study. The blocks were retrieved from the archive and the patients’ bio data and the histopathological pattern from the biopsies record book. The sections were cut from the tissue blocks using rotary microtome. They were stained with heamatoxylin and eosin staining technique and the photomicrographs, bio data and histopathological pattern were analyzed and the results were presented in tables as percentages.

Results: A total of forty three larynx biopsies were received during the period under review, 17 samples (39.5%) were benign lesions while 26 samples (60.5%) were malignant lesions. The age group with the highest occurrences is 0-9 years which were mostly benign with the malignant having the highest age range of 40-49 years. The male to female ratio 5.5: 1 and Squamous cell carcinoma had the highest frequency of 92.3% while non Hodgkins lymphoma and Hybrid carcinoma had the lowest frequency of 3.8% respectively.

Conclusion: The study showed that there were more benign larynx lesions occurring during the first decade of life while those in older range (40-49 years) were mostly malignant. We recommend awareness for the early detection of these lesions.