Open Access Minireview Article

Hemifacial Microsomia: A Mini Review

Shilpa Ashok Sharma, Sayali Vikram Pagar Patil, Anupama Mudhol, Jyothi Shashidhar

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i730208

Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM) is a congenital anomaly involving embryological derivatives of the first and second branchial arches and characterized mainly by mandibular hypoplasia and unilateral or bilateral microtia; although, other facial structures may be affected. It may have long-term effects on psychological development and social well-being, due to unaesthetic facial appearance, functional disturbances and complex medical treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of CPR Knowledge among Clinical Radiography Students at a Tertiary Institution in Nigeria

G. M. Akpaniwo, A. A. Sadiq, I. Y. Iliyasu, U. Abubakar, A. D. Gurama

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i730209

Background: Current state of practice of medical imaging now encompasses advance supportive care to patient, in addition to the supportive care offered for the stabilization of patient before radiologic procedures. Advance supportive care, such as Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is offered to patient who may have cardiopulmonary arrests.

Objective: To assess the knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among clinical radiography students of a tertiary institution in Sokoto.

Methods: A cross section study employing a semi-structured and self-administered questionnaire, consisting of two section, designed with the aim of the study were distributed among 82 clinical radiography students (300 – 500 level), in the 2017/2018 academy session of the tertiary institution (Usmanu Danfodiyo University) in Sokoto. The data were extracted using SPSS version 20 and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: A total of 75 questionnaire were returned, yielding a response rate of 91.5%. Respondents comprised 53 male and 22 female aged 20 to 34 years with mean age of 27 years. It was observed that 68% of the students had never had a CPR training and about 4% of the respondents knew the recommended compression to ventilation ratio during a CPR. While 1.3% knew the recommended chest compression to be performed each minute when giving CPR. Majority of the respondents (94.7%) were of the opinion, that CPR training should be made mandatory for all clinical radiography students.

Conclusion: Base on the evidence presented within this study, there is knowledge gap in the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among clinical radiography students, as majority of the students do not have adequate knowledge on the practice of CPR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Coexisting Systemic and Ocular Diseases among Cataract Surgery Patients: A Study in a Teaching Hospital in North East Malaysia

Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i730210

Aim: To determine the prevalence of coexisting systemic and ocular diseases among the cataract surgery patients in a teaching hospital in north east Malaysia.

Method: in this retrospective study, the medical records of patients who were operated for cataract over a period of three years by a single surgeon in the teaching Hospital University Sains Malaysia were analyzed for the coexisting systemic and ocular diseases. Some patients were operated in both eyes.

Results: Out of 218 patients who underwent cataract surgery, one or more systemic diseases were present in 113 patients (51.8%). The most common associated systemic disease was diabetes mellitus (24.3%), followed by hypertension (22.4%). A total of 324 eyes were operated in these patients. In addition to cataract, one or more ocular diseases were present in 129 eyes (39.8%). The most common ocular disease in cataract eyes was pterygium (9.8%), followed by diabetic retinopathy (9.5%). 

Conclusion:  Ophthalmologist has to identify the coexisting systemic and ocular diseases present among cataract surgery patients. These diseases should be adequately controlled before surgery in order to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications, and to achieve better quality of life for the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex People Residing on Blue Diamond Society of Dhumbarahi, Kathmandu, Nepal: A Social Life Perspective

Suraksha Subedi, Maginsh Dahal, Kushalata Baral, Bimal Baral, Sanjita Rai

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i730211

Background: Sex refers to biological and physical characteristics that are linked with labeled male or female. Transgender refers to a person whose sense of personal identity and gender does not correspond with their birth sex.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the social life of LGBTI living at blue diamond society.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted among 188 respondents living at Blue diamond society Dhumbarahi, Kathmandu. Non-probability, purposive sampling technique and structured interview were used for data collection. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and percentage was calculated and presented in tables.

Results: Among 188 respondents, 28.2% were transgender male, 28.7% were transgender female, 22.9%were gay and 20.2% were lesbian, all (100%) of the respondents have difficulty walking outside the society, all(100%) of the respondent have difficult to adjust beside their own society and all(100%) of the respondents do not have job opportunity in the society.

Conclusion: The above results concluded that further studies on various topics related to LGBTI are needed to conduct for improvement of social life of LGBTI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Acute Painful Episodes with Foetal Hemoglobin Level and Other Haematological Parameters in Sickle Cell Patients in Abuja Nigeria

O. Chinwe Okeke, O. Ernest Ukaejiofo, E. Nnodu Obiageli, D. Ezigbo Eyiuche, C. Okeke Chinedu

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i730213

Introduction: Heterogeneity in sickle cell anaemia manifestations ranges from near asymptomatic cases to severe illness. 

Objective: This study determined the relationship between foetal haemoglobin F level, other haematological parameters and acute painful episode score of sickle cell disease patients in FCT Abuja Nigeria.

Methods: 60 Sickle cell patients were selected for the study. 20 severe crises, 20 non-severe crisis SS were enrolled in the study. Control group comprised 20 apparently healthy haemoglobin AA individuals. Data were analysed descriptively.

Results: Hb F level increased significantly in non-severe crisis sickle cell anaemia (7.12%± 3.6) and severe crisis (5.30%±2.3) groups, compared to the control group (0.32±1.8). This trend was also observed in RDW, MCHC and MCV. The mean Hb concentration and haematocrit (Hct) were significantly lower for both non- severe crisis and severe crisis SCA groups. There was no significant correlation between HbF and any of the haematological parameters in both non severe crisis and severe crisis groups. Patients with SCA had higher levels of HbF than matched controls. HbF had no correlation with any of the haematological parameters in both severe and non-severe SCA groups studied.

Conclusion: Further studies should focus on environmental factors contributing to this variability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety and Efficacy Profile of CSE-1034 as a Prolonged De-escalation Therapy in Prosthetic Joint Infection: A Case Report

Prachee Sathe, Pankaj Mandale

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i730214

Background: Although rare, infection is considered to be most dreadful of the prosthetic related complications resulting in repeated surgical intervention, extended hospitalization or sometimes in loss of implant or permanent disability if not treated promptly. Poor treatment outcome associated with prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) could be partly attributed to rise in anti-microbial resistance among the causative agents.

Case Presentation: This is a first reported case of ceftriaxone + sulbactam + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CSE 1034) being used as an de-escalation therapy for more than 24 days with good safety and efficacy outcome in a 78 year male patient with PJI associated with hip replacement surgery, treated initially with meropenem and colistin followed by prolonged de-escalation therapy (24 days).

Conclusions: In clinically complicated cases of deep infections where prolonged use of last resort antibiotics is used, CSE-1034 can be considered as a safe, efficacious and economical de-escalating antibiotic to complete the treatment course and prevent recurrence of infection, especially in PJI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physician’s Knowledge on X-ray Exposure from CT Scans in a Moroccan Hospital

Bouchra Amaoui, Abdennasser El Kharras, Slimane Semghouli

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i730215

Background: Computed tomography (CT) is a major source of ionizing radiation exposure in medical diagnostic.  Patients more exposed related to radiation are supposed to be more susceptible to health risks.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess physician’s knowledge of radiation doses and potential health risks of radiation exposure from CT.

Materials and Methods: A standardized questionnaire was distributed to physicians. The questionnaire covered the demographic data of the prescriber, the frequency of referrals for CT scan examinations, the physicians’ knowledge of radiation doses, the potential health risks of radiation exposure from CT scan and training on patients’ radiation   protection. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Microsoft Office Excel 2007.

Results: A total of 72 physicians (55%) completed the questionnaire. Ninety nine percent of the practitioners’ prescribe CT examinations for patients during their exercises but only 10% of physicians use the guideline during CT prescriptions. Thirty eight percent of prescribers took into account the ratio benefit/risk related to x-rays during radiological exam prescription. While 4% of prescribers’ explained the risk related to x-rays to the patients during radiological exam prescription, 14% of physicians have correctly estimated the effective dose received during an abdomen pelvic scan compared to the dose of a standard chest x-ray radiograph in an adult.  Fifty four percent of doctors underestimated the lifetime risk of fatal cancer attributable to a single computed tomography scan of the abdomen pelvic and 8% of practitioners have received formal training on risks to patients from radiation exposure.

Conclusion: The present study showed the limited knowledge of radiation exposure for the Physicians. Recurrent training in advanced radiation protection of patients could lead to significant improvements in knowledge and practice of CT prescribers.

Open Access Review Article

Antitumor Potential of Antimicrobials: An Anticipated Armour for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Dabeeran Zehra, Zahida Memon, Kauser Moin, Shumaila Usman, Urooj Zafar, Nisha Zahid

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i730212

Hepatocellular carcinoma also known as hepatoma is considered as the most common type of primary liver malignancy and is the leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence and mortality is still on the rise despite the drastic progress in early screening tools and new advancements in diagnosis and treatment. For the patients presenting with advanced disease, Sorafenib is the only approved drug, however the treatment outcome of metastatic cancer is still unsatisfactory with median overall survival below 15 months. Over the past few years great progress has been achieved in anticancer therapy, but development of resistance and unavoidable side effects have weakened these attainments. Keeping in view this stern condition, a number of drugs with novel antitumor mechanisms are under investigations including antimicrobials which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects. In this regard, both conventional and novel antimicrobials are being studied to explore their anticancer potential along with underlying mechanisms which may render them as effective anticancer drugs in near future. Moreover, the new approach of drug repurposing is also being encouraged especially in cancers in order to reduce cost and limit adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive landscape of current information on anti-tumor evidence in support of certain compounds with well-known antimicrobial activities, against HCC based on relevant literature search on different HCC cell lines.