Open Access Case Study

Mandibular Osteomyelitis in Concurrence with Psoriasis: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review

Hong He, Xinyu Xia, Jinhan Zhou, Xiaotong Deng, Kejie Lu, Er Li, Qingzhu Wu

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i430295

Mandibular osteomyelitis in a patient with psoriasis is an uncommonly clinical manifestation while there is an increasing number of reports and studies on involvements of stomatology in psoriasis, especially the death of a patient via or not via Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has never been reported. To review the management and possible mechanisms in pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis, as well as the relative involvements between stomatology and psoriasis the typical case with pictures and files is reviewed and literature is collected.Wekeepthe knowledge that psoriasis is either a primary keratinocyte disorder or an immunocyte-mediated chronic skin inflammatory disease while bone marrow is under suspected for immunopathogenesis. More association of stomatologic conditions with psoriasis is emerging. Conclusively, allogeneic BMT and new knowledge are worth to be stressed by both stomatological and dermatological doctors. Further insights of this kind of auto immunologic disease are under its developing.

Open Access Short Research Article

Diagnostic Performance of Blood Film Microscopy and PfHRP2-based RDT in a Routine Clinical Setting of a Secondary Health Facility in Ghana

Francis O. Agyapong, Daniel Ansong, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Ruby Martin-Peprah

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i430294

Background: Malaria remains a major public health threat claiming many lives particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Light microscopy and RDT are the mainstay tests in the clinical settings for malaria diagnosis. Many studies report varying levels of validity of these tests compared to molecular methods like PCR. Documentation on such comparative study involving the use of molecular techniques as reference test is scanty in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the diagnostic performance of these tests compared to PCR.

Methods: Blood film microscopy (thin and thick), RDT and nested PCR were run on blood samples from a total of 188 malaria suspected patients. The accuracy indices of the microscopy and RDT were calculated using the results of the PCR as the reference test.

Results: A total of 188 patients were recruited with females constituting the majority 128 (68%). The paediatric age group 1-10 years carried the largest burden of malaria by means of all the 3 tests. A sensitivity of 47.37% (95% ci, 37.03 – 57.88%) was shown by both the microscopy and RDT with specificity of 93.55% (95% ci, 86.48 – 97.60) and 100% (95% ci, 96.11 – 100.00%) and kappa co – efficient of 0.41 and 0.47 respectively.

Conclusion: Both microscopy and RDT exhibited high level of specificity but low sensitivity. Significant number of malaria parasitaemic patients as revealed by the PCR was missed by both the RDT and blood film microscopy and thus went undiagnosed.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Indigenous Cultural Ways of Diagnosis in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

Stephen Ababio, Steve Kquofi, Eric Appau Asante

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i430291

The primary aim of this study is to make the indigenous cultural ways of identifying diseases known in order to promote and remove the mystery and superstition associated to them. Due to the nature of the study, the purposive sampling technique was largely employed. Interviews and observations were the main data collecting instruments used. The four study areas which are Bongari Shrine at Adumakasekese, Asuo Abresua Shrine of Ahwirewam, Bokankye Akua Gyabon Shrine (currently situated at Mankranso Peposo), and Apomasu Kwao Shrine of Ntensere were purposively selected. The study revealed that the traditional healers use items ranging from natural to artificial such as eggs, talismans, cowries, money and other objects to diagnose various diseases. In diagnosing of diseases, the traditional healers take a holistic approach which are the social, natural, spiritual and the cosmic environment which are not in the case of the orthodox medication. It is therefore important for government and stakeholders to give recognition to these diviners and spiritual healers by putting up nice buildings (clinics and hospitals) and providing them the necessary needs like what they have been doing for the orthodox health centres and if possible integrate the traditional medication into the orthodox ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Contraceptive Pills: Socio-demographic Characteristics of Acceptors at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

EI Nonye-Enyidah, F. C. C. Wekere, R. Donubari

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i430292

Background: Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCPs) are the most widely prescribed form of hormonal contraception both in developed and developing countries. They are also the most popular non-surgical method of contraception.

Objective: To determine the prevalence rate and socio-demographic characteristics of oral contraceptive pills acceptors at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH), Port Harcourt.

Methods: A 10 year review of all clients who accepted oral contraceptive pills in the family planning clinic of the hospital from 1st January, 2008 to 31st December, 2017. Data was extracted, coded and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM version 25.0 (Armonk, NY).

Results: There were 1893 contraceptive acceptors during the study period, out of which 86 (4.5%) accepted the oral pills. Majority of the clients 66 (76.8%) were between the age range of 20 to 34, married 82 (95.3%), multiparous 48 (55.8%), Christians 82 (95.3%) and 82 (95.3%) had formal education. Clinical personnel were the commonest source of information on the use of oral contraceptive pills, accounting for 36 (41.8%).

Conclusion: Oral contraceptive pills are methods of contraception used by young, multiparous and educated women. Only 4.5% of the women accepted OCPs during the study period therefore concerted efforts should be made to improve its uptake in the family planning clinic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Seropositive VDRL Cases amongst Pregnant Women at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: Is Routine Screening for Syphilis Using VDRL Still Relevant?

P. A. Awoyesuku, D. A. MacPepple, N. J. Kwosah

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i430293

Background: Untreated maternal syphilis is strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes. The WHO recommends routine serological screening in pregnancy. Some workers have advised a reappraisal of this practice, having demonstrated low seroprevalence in their antenatal population.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of seropositive VDRL cases amongst pregnant women at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH) in order to justify the need and cost-effectiveness for continued routine syphilis screening using VDRL alone.

Methodology: A retrospective review of hospital and laboratory records of all pregnant women booked for antenatal care (ANC) at RSUTH in a two-year period, from May 2017 to April 2019, was carried out. Data on patients’ age, parity and educational level, and reactivity of VDRL test at booking were retrieved using structured pro-forma and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7. Test for significance using Chi-square was set at significant level of P<0.05.

Results: 3560 clinic patients had VDRL screening out of which 63 were positive. The overall prevalence rate in this study was 1.8%. The mean age was 31.5±4.7 years and the mean gestational age at booking was 22.1±6.8 weeks. There was no significant relationship between their age (χ2 = 0.403, p-value=0.940), parity (χ2 = 3.707, p-value=0.0.157), and educational status (χ2 = 1.853, p-value=0.396), and seropositivity. The cost of VDRL test per patient in RSUTH is $3, to detect the 63 cases the sum of $10,680 was spent.

Conclusion: The seroprevalence rate of syphilis in this study was low. Initial screening using VDRL alone is neither justified nor cost effective. Selective screening based on risk factors and specific test with TPHA is recommended.