Open Access Case Report

Sinonasal Melanoma: A Rare Cause of Severe Nasal Bleeding

Leonard Derkyi-Kwarteng, Kafui P. Akakpo, Ato A. Brown, Abigail N. Derkyi-Kwarteng, Emmanuel Gustav Imbeah

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i830315

Mucosal melanoma is an aggressive but very rare tumour that can occur within the nasal and paranasal sinuses. It accounts for less than 1.0% of all melanomas and 4.0% of all sinonasal tumours. We present a 48-year-old with a stage IVA nasal melanocytic melanoma who had surgery as primary treatment option.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Community Pharmacists towards Weight Management in Khartoum State, Sudan

Abd Elmoneim O. Elkhalifa, Fajr H. E. Humida, Maha A. S. Hussien, Shaza O. H. Kanan

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i830312

This research was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practice of community pharmacists in Khartoum state towards weight managements, and to explore their roles in dispensing of off label drugs as weight management drugs. A questionnaire was used to collect primary data from 100 community pharmacists in Khartoum state who were chosen randomly. The secondary data was collected from different references, journals, textbooks and internet website. The results of this study showed that 91% of community pharmacists were highly involved in providing advice in weight management. The dispensing of weight management medications depended mainly on weight of the patients (25%). This research revealed that 49% of pharmacists dispensed the metformin for off label use as anti-obesity drug, 58% of them dispense it under prescription while 51% of the pharmacists never dispensed it for weight loss. In addition, 27% of the pharmacists’ dispensed mosegore (sandomigran) for weight gain while the majority of them never dispense it (73%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Radiation Dose in Nuclear Medicine Controlled Areas: Hot Lab, Injection and Isolated Rooms

Akinlade Bidemi I., Kelani Sherif O.

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i830314

Introduction: Observing radiation protection and safety culture in radiation practices reduce radiation exposure and the probability of radiation risk to workers, patients and the general public. This study assesses the radiation protection and safety practice at the pioneer Nuclear Medicine Centre in Nigeria, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan. This assessment involves measurements of dose rate and surface contamination in the hot laboratory, injection and patient’s isolated rooms and compares their values with international recommended limits.

Materials and Methods: Measurements of radiation doses and surface contamination in the controlled areas were carried out using three different high-sensitive and calibrated radiation detectors namely Ultra Radiac (model MRAD 1010), Ludlum (model 2241-3/44-9) and Redeye (model PRD).

Results: The dose rate values in the controlled areas monitored ranged from 0.103 to 0.430 µGy/h while the effective doses calculated from these values ranged from 0.2 to 0.86 mSv per annum. This is far less than the recommended dose limit of 20 mSv per annum for radiation worker, who usually worked in these areas. Also, the surface contamination values obtained in these areas ranged from 0.060 to 2.867 Bq/cm2, which is similarly less than the recommended limit of 10 Bq/cm2.

Conclusion: These results showed that the centre has a wide range of compliance with radiation safety practice according to the acceptable standards guided by the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority and International regulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Vernonia amygdalina on Chloroquine-induced Cardiotoxicity in Adult Wistar Rats

Rebecca O. Adebayo, Peterson M. S. Atiba, Gabriel G. Akunna, Olaleye O. Olabiyi

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i830316

Background: Cardiotoxicity could result from chemotherapeutic drugs or other medications used in disease control such as antimalarial drugs.

Chloroquine (C.Q), an antimalarial agent has also been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, giardiasis, extra-intestinal amebiasis and lupus erythematous. However, its cardiotoxic roles have been documented.

Vernonia amygdalina del. (V.A) has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. These ameliorative and protect effects have been attributed to the presence of flavonoids. There is a paucity of data to support the cardioprotective potentials of this important neutraceutical. We aimed to evaluate the possible effects of Vernonia amygdalina on Chloroquine-induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar models.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats were randomized into four groups of six rats each: I, Control: given normal feed and water ad libitum for 28 days; II, administered 30 mg/kg body weight chloroquine orally for 28 days; III, administered 30 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine orally for 28 days and with 400mg/kg bodyweight of Vernonia amygdalina for another 14 days; VI, administered Vernonia amygdalina 400mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Antioxidant parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)], and histology of rat cardiac muscles were examined in the different groups.

Results: There was a significantly (p<0.0.05) increase in MDA level, reduced GSH level, increased SOD activity, and altered microanatomy of the rat cardiac muscle in the positive control group when compared with those of the negative control group. The changes in MDA and GSH concentration and SOD activity parameters were significantly (p<0.0.05) mitigated in rats co-treated with V.A when compared with the positive control rats. Similarly, co-administration of V.A with C.Q inhibited chloroquine induced-cardiotoxicity by reducing the altered microanatomy of the cardiac muscle of the rat.

Conclusion: It was concluded that V.A ameliorated chloroquine-induced cardiotoxicity in rats via its antioxidant property.

Open Access Original Research Article

Access to Breast Cancer Care in Jos, North Central

Alexander Femi Ale, Mercy Wakili Isichei, Michael Ayedima Misauno

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i830317

Aims: This paper seeks to evaluate the extent to which breast cancer patients from two tertiary health care centers in Jos were able to access the different components of breast cancer care.

Background: Breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries is associated with poor outcomes when compared with high-income countries. Numerous studies have identified factors responsible for this, one of them being a lack of access to the various components of breast cancer care. Breast cancer care requires a multimodal approach involving prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation and palliative care. Access to the various modalities of care is key to a good outcome.

Study Design: This study is a retrospective study.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out at Jos University Teaching Hospital, and FOMAS Hospital which are both tertiary health care centers located in the city of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The study spanned January 2016 to June 2019.We applied descriptive statistics for data analysis.

Methodology: We included all patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2016 and December 2017. Patients were followed up for a minimum of one and a half years (from January 2018 to June 2019). The project team performed a review of medical records and charts for data elements which included; sex, age, site of tumor, stage of tumor at presentation, and access to the different treatment modalities. Data was entered into a pre-designed proforma and analyzed on the SPSS 20 Chicago, Illinois. We applied descriptive statistics to the demographic data and clinical information of patients.

Results: The total number of patients was 110. Forty-four (40%) patients had access to immunohistochemistry (IHC). Eighty-nine (81%) patients were eligible for chemotherapy. Twenty-one (19%) patients were not fit for chemotherapy. Ten (9%) patients received radiotherapy.  A total of 73 (66%) patients had different forms of breast surgeries. Three (3%) patients declined surgery, while 34 (31%) were not fit for surgery. Thirty-four (31%) patients were treated with hormonal therapy.

Conclusion: This study examined access to the various components of breast cancer care within two tertiary health centers. It shows that in our environment, there is limited access to immunohistochemistry, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy.