Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Biological Samples Necroscopic Reports from the Death Verification Service of the State of Tocantins, Brazil

Arthur Alves Borges de Carvalho, Edson Garcia Soares, Layla Rabelo Costa, Leonardo Pedro Dorneles Silva, Mateus Vieira Gama, Nelita Gonçalves Faria de Bessa, Julian de Almeida, Wemerson Davi de Miranda

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i1130331

Analyze, in the necroscopic reports of the Death Verification Service of the State of Tocantins (SVO-TO), the records of biological samples collected for histopathological examination and records of autolysis in histopathological results and correlate them with records of causes of mortality and morbidity. Cross-sectional observational analytical study conducted in 494 autopsy reports completed and filed in SVO-TO, Brazil, between 2012 and 2016. Records of the number of biological samples collected for histopathology, number of autolysis, number of causes of mortality and number of causes of morbidity were extracted and identified. For the analysis of the relationship between the variables, descriptive and analytical statistics were used in SAS SYSTEM software. The mean number of mortality records was 5.72 ± 2.42 (CV 42.32%), causes of morbidity: 0.2 ± 0.5 (CV 251.46%), number of biological samples collected: 2.66 ± 1.13 (CV 42.59%), number of autolysis: 1.74 ± 1.05 (CV 60.06%). The number of mortality and morbidity diagnoses recorded in SVO reports increases the higher the number of samples collected by necropsies physicians. The number of biological samples collected by necropsy positively impacts the number of causes of mortality and morbidity. Collecting more than seven tissue samples by necropsy does not impact the number of causes of mortality and morbidity. The low numbers of autolysis records suggest efficacy in the collection of biological samples in SVO-TO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupation Noise Exposure and Hearing Impairment among Grain Millers in Ita-Amo Market, Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria

Wasiu Temitope Shehu, Henry Olawale Sawyerr, Moshood Liman Ibrahim

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i1130332

Occupational noise has been identified to cause health hazard on workers. Noise pollution annoys, causes hearing loss, and disturbs mental capacity and performance. Noise pollution is becoming increasingly more severe in cities and occupational setting, escalating at such a high rate that it is now considered as a major threat to the quality of human lives. This study aims to evaluate the level of occupational noise exposure, the effect of noise Grain Millers and the use of personal protective equipment. The study group included 54 mill operators comprising males and females, from 38 mill shops. Age ranges from 15 to 58 years. The Noise Measurement was taken three times a day on 7 different occasions during active milling using Mini-Sound Level Meter (Risepro HT-80A). A semi-structured interviewer questionnaire was conducted to elicit some information such as the source of noise, use of hearing protective device and effect of noise on hearing. This study result indicated that noise exposure depends on types of mill operation and machines used for milling activities This study revealed that the respondents were exposed to noise pollution ranging from 85-115.90 dB(A) with average value of 102 dB(A) which is above the standard of 85 dB(A) given by NESREA.  Approximately 75% of the respondent experience temporary hearing and tinnitus shortly after work and 92.59% did not have any personal protective device or hearing protective device. Therefore, there is an urgent need for intervention and awareness on the effects of noise on health and the use of hearing protective devices should be strictly enforced by the appropriate authority.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Analysis of Bacterial Aerosols Generated during Ultrasonic Dental Scaling

Angabeen Anjum, Mervyn Hosein, Saima Akram Butt, Fakhuruddin ., Yousra Shafiq

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i1130333

Aims: To compare the efficacy of two mouth rinses (0.2% Chlorhexidine and 5% green tea mouth rinse) in reducing the bacterial load (CFUs) in aerosol samples collected during ultrasonic dental scaling and to do the qualitative analysis of bacterial isolates.

Study Design: Quasi experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Periodontics (Ziauddin college of Dentistry), Ziauddin University, Karachi, between January 2019 to August 2019.

Methodology: This study comprised of seventy patients (43 males and 27 females) within the age group of 20 to 65 years having gingival and plaque score between 1 and 3 and mean probing depth less than 5 mm. All study subjects were divided into 2 equal groups (group 1 and group 2). A split mouth design was used for ultrasonic scaling (oral prophylaxis). Control side was scaled without pre rinsing while the test side was scaled after pre procedural mouth rinsing. Group 1 study subjects were instructed to rinse with 10 ml 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouth rinse for one minute and Group 2 rinsed with 10 ml 5% green tea mouth rinse for a minute. Fresh blood agar plates were used for air sampling, which were then transported to Microbiology laboratory (JPMC) for aerobic culturing and microbiological examination.

Results: Greater percentage of Gram positive bacteria were found in aerosol samples generated during ultrasonic scaling. Gram positive cocci (Staph epidermidis and Micrococci species) were in abundance and very few gram negative bacteria were detected.

Conclusion: Dental health care providers and patients can easily acquire infections because of contaminated aerosols and splatters and so all infection control measures should be taken to minimize these risks. Pre procedural mouth rinsing with effective mouthwashes should be done before dental procedures as it is easiest and much economical way of reducing cross infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Benign Proliferative Breast Disease: A Histopathological Review of Cases at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital

Leonard Derkyi-Kwarteng, Ato A. Brown, Abigail Derkyi-Kwarteng, Eric Gyan, Kafui P. Akakpo, Afua Abraham

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i1130335

Background:​ With the increasing education on breast cancer, most women are reporting to the hospital with breast lumps most of which are benign breast lesions. Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions including developmental abnormalities, inflammatory lesions, epithelial and stromal proliferation and neoplasms. This is to look at the various histologic type of benign proliferative breast diseases among Ghanaian women.

Method​s: This is a retrospective study of breast excisions received between 2006-2013 at the Department of Pathology, Korle Bu teaching hospital (KBTH), Ghana. All histological slides were retrieved and examine. Demographic information was also retrieved from the request form. The data was subject to analysis using SPSS version 16.5 and Windows Excel.

Results​: During the period of study, 2,805 cases of benign breast lesions were received by the department, out of which 2,396 were proliferative benign lesions representing 89.4%. The top five lesions were fibroadenoma (89.01%), fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia (3.26%), tubular adenoma (2.51%), benign phylloides tumour (1.71%) and intraductal papilloma (1.59%). The average ages of clients with these lesions were 24 years (±8.3 years), 28 years (±10.7 years), 22.7 years (±15 years), 38 years (±14.2 years and 45.4 years (±8.3 years) respectively. Fibroadenoma and benign phelloides tumour have a preponderance to the right and left breast respectively with statistical significance.

Conclusion​: There are some differences between benign breast lesions in Ghanaian women as compared to other African countries within the Sub Saharan region.

Open Access Review Article

The Imaging Features of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutant Gliomas

Fatima Mubarak

Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v31i1130334

To appraise Magnetic resonance imaging features of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas. In literature, IDH mutant gliomas are usually in frontal lobes, they are less contrast-enhancing with well-defined borders. They have high ADC values low regional cerebral blood volumes. 2-HG detection of MR spectroscopy has more promising results. 

In this review, we tried to describe conventional and advanced neuroimaging features of IDH mutant Gliomas.